Biology of Root Formation and Development

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Author: Arie Altman,Yoav Waisel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461554039

Category: Science

Page: 376

View: 5154

This book contains the majority of the presentations of the Second International Symposium on the Biology of Root Formation and Development that was hcld in Jerusa lem, Israel, June 23---28, 1996. Following the First Symposium on the Biology of Adventi tious Root Formation, held in Dallas. USA, 1993, we perceived the need to include all kinds of roots, not only the shoot-borne ones. The endogenous signals that control root formation. and the subsequent growth and development processes, are very much alike, re gardless of the sites and sources of origin of the roots. Therefore, we included in the Sec ond Symposium contributions on both shoot-borne (i.e., adventitious) roots and root-borne (i.e., lateral) roots. Plant roots have remained an exciting and an intriguing field of sciencc. During thc years that followed the first symposium, an exceptional proliferation of interest in root biology has developed, associated with the intensive research activity in this field and the contemporary developments in the understanding of root function and development. New methods have been applied, and old ideas and interprctations werc rccxamined. Alto gether, it became necessary to update our viewpoints and to expand them.

The Supporting Roots of Trees and Woody Plants: Form, Function and Physiology

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Author: A. Stokes

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401734690

Category: Science

Page: 431

View: 3588

This publication comprises the proceedings of the first International Conference devoted to the structural roots of trees and woody plants. 'The Supporting Roots - Structure and Function,' 20-24 July 1998, Bordeaux, France. The meeting was held under the auspices ofIUFRO WPS 2. 01. 13 'Root Physiology and Symbiosis,' and its aim was to bring together scientific researchers, foresters and arboriculturalists, to discuss current problems in structural root research and disseminate knowledge to an audience from a wide disciplinary background. For the first time in an international conference, emphasis was placed on presenting recent reseach in the field of tree anchorage mechanics and root biomechanics. The way in which tree stability can be affected by root system symmetry and architecture was addressed, as well as how movement during wind sway can influence the development and shape of woody roots. The role of different nursery and planting techniques was discussed, in relation to effects on root system form and development. Root response to different environmental stresses, including water, temperature, nutrient and mechanical stress was addressed in detail. The structure and function of woody roots was also considered at different levels, from coarse to fine roots, with several papers discussing the interaction between roots and the rhizosphere. One of the conference highlights was the presentation of new methods in root research, by a series of workshops held at LRBB-INRA, Pierroton, on the northern border of the Gascony forest.

The Olive Tree Genome

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Author: Eddo Rugini,Luciana Baldoni,Rosario Muleo,Luca Sebastiani

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319488872

Category: Science

Page: 193

View: 8525

This book provides an introduction to the genetics, genomics, and breeding of the olive tree, a multi-functional long-lived crop plant that is relevant not only for culinary olive and oil production, but also for shaping the landscape and history of many rural areas for centuries. Today, the recognized health benefits of extra-virgin olive oil provide new impulses for introducing innovation in olive crop management and olive breeding for a deeper understanding of the biological processes underlying fruit quality, adaptation to crop environment and response to threatening epidemics due to biological agents such as Xylella fastidiosa. The individual chapters discuss genetic resources; classic and modern breeding methods for providing new olive cultivars; the genotype x environment interactions determining the response to biotic and abiotic stresses; fruit metabolism related to oil production and the synthesis of health beneficial molecules; the mapping of genes and quantitative trait locus; and genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic strategies pertinent to the development of a molecular platform and template amenable to precise and rapid genetic modifications using recently developed genome editing tools.

Biology of Adventitious Root Formation

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Author: Tim D. Davis,Bruce E. Haissig

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475794924

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 2962

Charles E. Hess Department of Environmental Horticulture University of California Davis, CA 95616 Research in the biology of adventitious root formation has a special place in science. It provides an excellent forum in which to pursue fundamental research on the regulation of plant growth and development. At the same time the results of the research have been quickly applied by commercial plant propagators, agronomists, foresters and horticulturists (see the chapter by Kovar and Kuchenbuch, by Ritchie, and by Davies and coworkers in this volume). In an era when there is great interest in speeding technology transfer, the experiences gained in research in adventitious root formation may provide useful examples for other areas of science. Interaction between the fundamental and the applied have been and continue to be facilitated by the establishment, in 1951, of the Plant Propagators' Society, which has evolved into the International Plant Propagators' Society, with active programs in six regions around the world. It is a unique organization which brings together researchers in universities, botanical gardens and arboreta, and commercial plant propagators. In this synergistic environment new knowledge is rapidly transferred and new ideas for fundamental research evolve from the presentations and discussions by experienced plant propagators. In the past 50 years, based on research related to the biology of adventitious root formation, advances in plant propagation have been made on two major fronts.

Sustainable Horticulture

Today and Tomorrow

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Author: Raymond P. Poincelot

Publisher: Pearson College Division

ISBN: 9780136185543

Category: Gardening

Page: 870

View: 2394

This comprehensive introduction to the emerging discipline of sustainable horticulture provides readers with the foundations of horticultural science that underlie all forms of horticulture from conventional through sustainable to organic. The book leads readers through practices and production, and provides the necessary information to support a more sustainable and environmentally friendly horticulture.The volume explains moving to sustainability, provides an introduction to horticultural science and horticultural practices including plant propagation, crop breeding, biotechnology, energy sustainability and sustaining soil, water and environment, home horticulture basics, integrated pest management and an introduction to horticultural crops.For horticultural professionals, policy makers, consumers and future farmers.

Plant Tissue Culture, Development, and Biotechnology

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Author: Robert N. Trigiano,Dennis J. Gray

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439896143

Category: Medical

Page: 608

View: 8601

Under the vast umbrella of Plant Sciences resides a plethora of highly specialized fields. Botanists, agronomists, horticulturists, geneticists, and physiologists each employ a different approach to the study of plants and each for a different end goal. Yet all will find themselves in the laboratory engaging in what can broadly be termed biotechnology. Addressing a wide variety of related topics, Plant Tissue Culture, Development, and Biotechnology gives the practical and technical knowledge needed to train the next generation of plant scientists regardless of their ultimate specialization. With the detailed perspectives and hands-on training signature to the authors’ previous bestselling books, Plant Development and Biotechnology and Plant Tissue Culture Concepts and Laboratory Exercises, this book discusses relevant concepts supported by demonstrative laboratory experiments. It provides critical thinking questions, concept boxes highlighting important ideas, and procedure boxes giving precise instruction for experiments, including step-by-step procedures, such as the proper microscope use with digital photography, along with anticipated results, and a list of materials needed to perform them. Integrating traditional plant sciences with recent advances in plant tissue culture, development, and biotechnology, chapters address germplasm preservation, plant growth regulators, embryo rescue, micropropagation of roses, haploid cultures, and transformation of meristems. Going beyond the scope of a simple laboratory manual, this book also considers special topics such as copyrights, patents, legalities, trade secrets, and the business of biotechnology. Focusing on plant culture development and its applications in biotechnology across a myriad of plant science specialties, this text uses a broad range of species and practical laboratory exercises to make it useful for anyone engaged in the plant sciences.

Detoxification of Heavy Metals

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Author: Irena Sherameti,Ajit Varma

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642214080

Category: Science

Page: 448

View: 6182

Heavy metals are severe environmental pollutants, and many of them are toxic even at very low concentrations. With industrial development, soil pollution with heavy metal elements have dramatically increased. The uptake of heavy metals via plants that are exposed to contaminated soils is a risk for human health and a major hazard for the ecosystem as a whole, including soil microorganisms. On the other hand, plants may be used in the decontamination of soils. The topics presented in this book include: sources of heavy metals contaminants in soils; plant species that can grow on contaminated soils; the phytoremediation of contaminated soils; tolerance, accumulation and detoxification mechanisms of zinc, copper, arsenic, cadmium and vanadium in plants; the critical role of sulfur metabolism in heavy metal tolerance; the role of aquatic macrophytes, plant growth-promoting bacteria, sugar crops and earthworms in detoxification; and heavy metal stabilization by promoting zeolite synthesis in soils.

Urban Family Medicine

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Author: Richard B. Birrer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461246245

Category: Medical

Page: 1300

View: 3831

Now, more than ever, Family Medicine is alive and well in the United States. The base of this medical specialty has traditionally been in the smaller cities, suburban communities, and rural areas of this country. Over the past decade, however, there has been a resurgence of interest in primary care in our major metropolitan areas as a solution to the high tech subspecialty pace of the tertiary care environment. A rebirth of urban family medicine has accompanied these pioneering efforts. To date, the accomplishments are substantial and the prospects are bright. There is still a long way to go and there are a significant number of hurdles to cross. Although diseases are generally the same wherever you are, their effects as illness on the individual and the family are strongly influenced by the environment and social milieu. Urban families have distinctive and diverse problems-cultural, economic, and ethnic. Training pro grams situated in the large cities must recognize these issues and include special emphasis on the situations that the family physician is likely to encounter during and after his training. There is very little research literature on the background and nature of special urban problems and these areas are the subject of several chapters of this long overdue volume devoted specifically to urban family medicine. Dr. Birrer has persuaded true experts to share their knowledge with the reader.

Conifer Reproductive Biology

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Author: Claire G. Williams

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402096011

Category: Science

Page: 170

View: 6675

When it comes to reproduction, gymnosperms are deeply weird. Cycads and co- fers have drawn out reproduction: at least 13 genera take over a year from polli- tion to fertilization. Since they don’t apparently have any selection mechanism by which to discriminate among pollen tubes prior to fertilization, it is natural to w- der why such a delay in reproduction is necessary. Claire Williams’ book celebrates such oddities of conifer reproduction. She has written a book that turns the context of many of these reproductive quirks into deeper questions concerning evolution. The origins of some of these questions can be traced back Wilhelm Hofmeister’s 1851 book, which detailed the revolutionary idea of alternation of generations. This alternation between diploid and haploid generations was eventually to become one of the key unifying ideas in plant evolution. Dr. Williams points out that alter- tion of generations in conifers shows strong divergence in the evolution of male and female gametes, as well as in the synchronicity of male and female gamete development. How are these coordinated to achieve fertilization? Books on conifer reproduction are all too rare. The only major work in the last generation was Hardev Singh’s 1978 Embryology of Gymnosperms, a book that summarized the previous century’s work. Being a book primarily about embry- ogy, it stopped short of putting conifer reproduction in a genetic or evolutionary context.

Norbert Elias and Modern Sociology

Knowledge, Interdependence, Power, Process

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Author: Eric Dunning,Jason Hughes

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 178093226X

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 239

View: 809

This book endeavours to bring the sociology of Elias to a new and wider audience through offering accessible explanations of some of his key ideas.

Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Markers

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Author: S. Srivastava,A. Narula

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402032137

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 2162

The genesis of the volume, Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Markers, has been the occasion of the retirement of Professor Sant Saran Bhojwani from the Department of Botany, University of Delhi. For Professor Bhojwani, retirement only means relinquishing the chair as being a researcher and a teacher which has always been a way of life to him. Professor Bhojwani has been an ardent practitioner of modern plant biology and areas like Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Breeding have been close to his heart. The book contains original as well as review articles contributed by his admirers and associates who are experts in their area of research. While planning this contributory book our endeavour has been to incorporate articles that cover the entire gamut of Plant Biotechnology, and also applications of Molecular Markers. Besides articles on in vitro fertilization and micropropagation, there are articles on forest tree improvement through genetic engineering. Considering the importance of conservation of our precious natural wealth, one article deals with cryopreservation of plant material. Chapter on molecular marker considers DNA indexing as markers of clonal fidelity of in vitro regenerated plants and prevention against bio-piracy. A couple of write-ups also cover stage-specific gene markers, DNA polymorphism and genetic engineering, including raising of stress tolerant plants to sustain productivity and help in reclamation of degraded land.

Quo Vadis Quantum Mechanics?

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Author: Avshalom C. Elitzur,Shahar Dolev,Nancy Kolenda

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540266690

Category: Science

Page: 421

View: 9266

Each contribution is an article in itself, and great effort has been made by the authors to be lucid and not too technical. A few brief highlights of the round-table discussions are given between the chapters. Topics include: Quantum non-locality, the measurement problem, quantum insights into relativity, cosmology and thermodynamics, and possible bearings of quantum mechanics to biology and consciousness. Authors include Yakir Aharanov and Anton Zeilinger, plus Nobel laureates Anthony J. Leggett (2003) and Gerardus ‘t Hooft (1999). Foreword written by Sir Roger Penrose, best-selling author (The Emperor's New Mind) and world-renowned mathematical physicist.

Plant Propagation by Tissue Culture

Volume 1. The Background

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Author: Edwin F. George,Michael A. Hall,Geert-Jan De Klerk

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402050054

Category: Science

Page: 502

View: 1100

For researchers and students, George’s books have become the standard works on in vitro plant propagation. For this, the third edition of the classic work, authors with specialist knowledge have been brought on board to cover the hugely expanded number of topics in the subject area. Scientific knowledge has expanded rapidly since the second edition and it would now be a daunting task for a single author to cover all aspects adequately. However, this edition still maintains the integration that was characteristic of the previous editions. The first volume of the new edition highlights the scientific background of in vitro propagation. The second volume covers the practice of micropropagation and describes its various applications.