Between Human and Machine

Feedback, Control, and Computing Before Cybernetics

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Author: David A. Mindell

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801880575

Category: Computers

Page: 439

View: 3052

"In contextualizing the theory of cybernetics, Mindell gives engineering back forgotten parts of its history, and shows how important historical circumstances are to technological change." -- Networker

Hello, Robot

Design Between Human and Machine

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Author: Mateo Kries

Publisher: Vitra Design Museum

ISBN: 9783945852118

Category:

Page: 328

View: 4560

Robotics now: from transport drones and intelligent sensors to the debate around Industry 4.0 Hello, Robot.: Design between Human and Machine investigates how robotics is becoming part of our everyday lives, demonstrating that design in its traditional function as a mediator is indispensable if robots are to become a visible reality and not just remain hidden in washing machines, cars and cash machines. The volume clarifies where we already encounter these intelligent machines and where we may come across them in the near future: in industry, in the military and in everyday settings; at nurseries and retirement homes; in our bodies and in the cloud; when shopping and having sex; in video games and, of course, in film and literature. In a series of in-depth essays and interviews, experts such as the science-fiction author Bruce Sterling, novelist Douglas Coupland, architect Philip Beesley, and the design duo Dunne & Raby explore the question of how we deal with our environment becoming increasingly digital, smarter and more autonomous. They highlight our often ambivalent relationship to new technologies and discuss the opportunities and challenges that are posed to us as individuals and as a society in this context. Hello, Robot. broadens the scope of the discussion to the ethical and political questions with which we are faced today in the light of technological advances in robotics, while confronting us with the contradictions that are often found in the answers to these questions.

Digital Apollo

Human and Machine in Spaceflight

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Author: David A. Mindell

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262266680

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 384

View: 6444

As Apollo 11's Lunar Module descended toward the moon under automatic control, a program alarm in the guidance computer's software nearly caused a mission abort. Neil Armstrong responded by switching off the automatic mode and taking direct control. He stopped monitoring the computer and began flying the spacecraft, relying on skill to land it and earning praise for a triumph of human over machine. In Digital Apollo, engineer-historian David Mindell takes this famous moment as a starting point for an exploration of the relationship between humans and computers in the Apollo program. In each of the six Apollo landings, the astronaut in command seized control from the computer and landed with his hand on the stick. Mindell recounts the story of astronauts' desire to control their spacecraft in parallel with the history of the Apollo Guidance Computer. From the early days of aviation through the birth of spaceflight, test pilots and astronauts sought to be more than "spam in a can" despite the automatic controls, digital computers, and software developed by engineers.Digital Apollo examines the design and execution of each of the six Apollo moon landings, drawing on transcripts and data telemetry from the flights, astronaut interviews, and NASA's extensive archives. Mindell's exploration of how human pilots and automated systems worked together to achieve the ultimate in flight -- a lunar landing -- traces and reframes the debate over the future of humans and automation in space. The results have implications for any venture in which human roles seem threatened by automated systems, whether it is the work at our desktops or the future of exploration.

Voice Communication Between Humans and Machines

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Author: for the National Academy of Sciences

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309049881

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 560

View: 8402

Science fiction has long been populated with conversational computers and robots. Now, speech synthesis and recognition have matured to where a wide range of real-world applications--from serving people with disabilities to boosting the nation's competitiveness--are within our grasp. Voice Communication Between Humans and Machines takes the first interdisciplinary look at what we know about voice processing, where our technologies stand, and what the future may hold for this fascinating field. The volume integrates theoretical, technical, and practical views from world-class experts at leading research centers around the world, reporting on the scientific bases behind human-machine voice communication, the state of the art in computerization, and progress in user friendliness. It offers an up-to-date treatment of technological progress in key areas: speech synthesis, speech recognition, and natural language understanding. The book also explores the emergence of the voice processing industry and specific opportunities in telecommunications and other businesses, in military and government operations, and in assistance for the disabled. It outlines, as well, practical issues and research questions that must be resolved if machines are to become fellow problem-solvers along with humans. Voice Communication Between Humans and Machines provides a comprehensive understanding of the field of voice processing for engineers, researchers, and business executives, as well as speech and hearing specialists, advocates for people with disabilities, faculty and students, and interested individuals.

Friendly Interfaces Between Humans and Machines

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Author: P. V. S Rao,Sunil Kumar Kopparapu

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 981131750X

Category: Computers

Page: 114

View: 4938

This book discusses human–machine interactions, specifically focusing on making them as natural as human–human interaction. It is based on the premise that to get the right connect between human and machines, it is essential to understand not only the behavior of the person interacting with the machine, but also the limitations of the technology. Firstly, the authors review the evolution of language as a spontaneous, natural phenomenon in the overall scheme of the evolutionary development of living beings. They then go on to examine the possible approaches to understanding and representing the meaning and the common aspects of human–human and human–machine interactions, and introduce the keyconcept-keyword (also called minimal parsing) approach as a convenient and realistic way to implement usable human–machine interface (HMI) systems. For researchers looking for practical approaches, way beyond the realms of theory, this book is a must read.

Human and Machine Consciousness

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Author: David Gamez

Publisher: Open Book Publishers

ISBN: 1783743018

Category: Philosophy

Page: 234

View: 7180

Consciousness is widely perceived as one of the most fundamental, interesting and difficult problems of our time. However, we still know next to nothing about the relationship between consciousness and the brain and we can only speculate about the consciousness of animals and machines. Human and Machine Consciousness presents a new foundation for the scientific study of consciousness. It sets out a bold interpretation of consciousness that neutralizes the philosophical problems and explains how we can make scientific predictions about the consciousness of animals, brain-damaged patients and machines. Gamez interprets the scientific study of consciousness as a search for mathematical theories that map between measurements of consciousness and measurements of the physical world. We can use artificial intelligence to discover these theories and they could make accurate predictions about the consciousness of humans, animals and artificial systems. Human and Machine Consciousness also provides original insights into unusual conscious experiences, such as hallucinations, religious experiences and out-of-body states, and demonstrates how ‘designer’ states of consciousness could be created in the future. Gamez explains difficult concepts in a clear way that closely engages with scientific research. His punchy, concise prose is packed with vivid examples, making it suitable for the educated general reader as well as philosophers and scientists. Problems are brought to life in colourful illustrations and a helpful summary is given at the end of each chapter. The endnotes provide detailed discussions of individual points and full references to the scientific and philosophical literature.

Human + Machine

Reimagining Work in the Age of AI

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Author: Paul R. Daugherty,H. James Wilson

Publisher: Harvard Business Press

ISBN: 1633693872

Category: Computers

Page: 264

View: 306

AI is radically transforming business. Are you ready? Look around you. Artificial intelligence is no longer just a futuristic notion. It's here right now--in software that senses what we need, supply chains that "think" in real time, and robots that respond to changes in their environment. Twenty-first-century pioneer companies are already using AI to innovate and grow fast. The bottom line is this: Businesses that understand how to harness AI can surge ahead. Those that neglect it will fall behind. Which side are you on? In Human + Machine, Accenture leaders Paul R. Daugherty and H. James (Jim) Wilson show that the essence of the AI paradigm shift is the transformation of all business processes within an organization--whether related to breakthrough innovation, everyday customer service, or personal productivity habits. As humans and smart machines collaborate ever more closely, work processes become more fluid and adaptive, enabling companies to change them on the fly--or to completely reimagine them. AI is changing all the rules of how companies operate. Based on the authors' experience and research with 1,500 organizations, the book reveals how companies are using the new rules of AI to leap ahead on innovation and profitability, as well as what you can do to achieve similar results. It describes six entirely new types of hybrid human + machine roles that every company must develop, and it includes a "leader’s guide" with the five crucial principles required to become an AI-fueled business. Human + Machine provides the missing and much-needed management playbook for success in our new age of AI.

Machines of Loving Grace

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Author: John Markoff

Publisher: Ecco

ISBN: 9780062266699

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 7157

As robots are increasingly integrated into modern society—on the battlefield and the road, in business, education, and health—Pulitzer-Prize-winning New York Times science writer John Markoff searches for an answer to one of the most important questions of our age: will these machines help us, or will they replace us? In the past decade alone, Google introduced us to driverless cars, Apple debuted a personal assistant that we keep in our pockets, and an Internet of Things connected the smaller tasks of everyday life to the farthest reaches of the internet. There is little doubt that robots are now an integral part of society, and cheap sensors and powerful computers will ensure that, in the coming years, these robots will soon act on their own. This new era offers the promise of immense computing power, but it also reframes a question first raised more than half a century ago, at the birth of the intelligent machine: Will we control these systems, or will they control us? In Machines of Loving Grace, New York Times reporter John Markoff, the first reporter to cover the World Wide Web, offers a sweeping history of the complicated and evolving relationship between humans and computers. Over the recent years, the pace of technological change has accelerated dramatically, reintroducing this difficult ethical quandary with newer and far weightier consequences. As Markoff chronicles the history of automation, from the birth of the artificial intelligence and intelligence augmentation communities in the 1950s, to the modern day brain trusts at Google and Apple in Silicon Valley, and on to the expanding tech corridor between Boston and New York, he traces the different ways developers have addressed this fundamental problem and urges them to carefully consider the consequences of their work. We are on the verge of a technological revolution, Markoff argues, and robots will profoundly transform the way our lives are organized. Developers must now draw a bright line between what is human and what is machine, or risk upsetting the delicate balance between them.

Human and Machine Learning

Visible, Explainable, Trustworthy and Transparent

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Author: Jianlong Zhou,Fang Chen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319904035

Category: Computers

Page: 482

View: 1805

With an evolutionary advancement of Machine Learning (ML) algorithms, a rapid increase of data volumes and a significant improvement of computation powers, machine learning becomes hot in different applications. However, because of the nature of “black-box” in ML methods, ML still needs to be interpreted to link human and machine learning for transparency and user acceptance of delivered solutions. This edited book addresses such links from the perspectives of visualisation, explanation, trustworthiness and transparency. The book establishes the link between human and machine learning by exploring transparency in machine learning, visual explanation of ML processes, algorithmic explanation of ML models, human cognitive responses in ML-based decision making, human evaluation of machine learning and domain knowledge in transparent ML applications. This is the first book of its kind to systematically understand the current active research activities and outcomes related to human and machine learning. The book will not only inspire researchers to passionately develop new algorithms incorporating human for human-centred ML algorithms, resulting in the overall advancement of ML, but also help ML practitioners proactively use ML outputs for informative and trustworthy decision making. This book is intended for researchers and practitioners involved with machine learning and its applications. The book will especially benefit researchers in areas like artificial intelligence, decision support systems and human-computer interaction.

The Shape of Actions

What Humans and Machines Can Do

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Author: Harry M. Collins,Martin Kusch,Reader in History and Philosophy of Science Martin Kusch

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262032575

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 212

View: 7571

"In this unusual, challenging, interdisciplinary book, Collins and Kusch have provided us with the best analysis we currently have of the determinants of the possibilities of automation." -- Donald MacKenzie, Department of Sociology, University of Edinburgh What can humans do? What can machines do? How do humans delegate actions to machines? In this book, Harry Collins and Martin Kusch combine insights from sociology and philosophy to provide a novel answer to these increasingly important questions. The authors begin by distinguishing between two basic types of intentional behavior, which they call polimorphic actions and mimeomorphicb actions. Polimorphic actions (such as writing a love letter) are ones that community members expect to vary with social context. Mimeomorphic actions (such a swinging a golf club) do not vary. Although machines cannot act, they can mimic mimeomorphic actions. Mimeomorphic actions are thus the crucial link between what humans can do and what machines can do. Following a presentation of their detailed categorization of actions, the authors apply their approach to a broad range of human-machine interactions and to learning. Key examples include bicycle riding and the many varieties of writing machines. They also show how their theory can be used to explain the operation of organizations such as restaurants and armies. Finally, they look at a historical case--the technological development of the air pump--applying their categorization of actions to the processes of mechanization and automation. Automation, they argue, can occur only where what we want to bring about can be brought about through mimeomorphic action.

The Fourth Discontinuity

The Co-Evolution of Humans and Machines

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Author: Bruce Mazlish

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300065121

Category: Psychology

Page: 271

View: 7327

This book draws on history and legend, science and science fiction to consider the complex relationship between humans and machines. Bruce Mazlish argues that just as Copernicus, Darwin, and Freud overturned our illusions of separation from and domination over the cosmos, the animal world, and the unconscious, it is now necessary to relinquish a fourth fallacy or discontinuity-that humans are separate from the machines we make.

The Mind and the Machine

What It Means to Be Human and Why It Matters

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Author: Matthew T. Dickerson

Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers

ISBN: 149820385X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 242

View: 6660

Are humans just complex biochemical machines, mere physical parts of a causally closed materialist universe? Are we approaching the so-called "Singularity" when human consciousness can (and will) be downloaded into computers? Or is there more to the human person--something that might be known as soul or spirit? As this book makes clear, the answers to these questions have profound implications to topics such as heroism, creativity, ecology, and the possibility of reason and science. In exploring this important topic, Dickerson engages the ideas of some well-known twentieth- and twenty-first-century espousers of physicalism, including philosopher Daniel Dennett (Consciousness Explained), biologist Richard Dawkins (The God Delusion), futurist-engineer Raymond Kurzweil (The Age of Spiritual Machines), psychologist B. F. Skinner (Beyond Freedom and Dignity), and mathematician-philosopher Bertrand Russell (Why I Am Not a Christian). Through a careful reading of their works, Dickerson not only provides a five-fold critique of physicalism, but also offers a Christian alternative in the form of "integrative dualism," which affirms the existence of both a physical and spiritual reality without diminishing the goodness or importance of either, and acknowledges that humans are spiritual as well as bodily persons.

Human and Machine Hearing

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Author: Richard F. Lyon

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107007534

Category: Computers

Page: 586

View: 4406

This book describes how human hearing works and how to build machines that analyze sounds in the same way that people do.

Human and Machine Vision

Analogies and Divergencies

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Author: Virginio Cantoni

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1489910042

Category: Science

Page: 391

View: 3402

The following are the proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Perception held in Pavia, Italy, on September 27-30, 1993, under the auspices of four institutions: the Group of Cybernetic and Biophysics (GNCB)s of the National Research Council (CNR), the Italian Association for Artificial Intelligence (AI * IA), the Italian Association of Psychology (AlP), and the Italian Chapter of the International Association for Pattern Recognition (IAPR). The theme of this third workshop was: "Human and Machine Vision: Analogies and Divergencies." A wide spectrum of topics was covered, ranging from neurophysiology, to computer architecture, to psychology, to image understanding, etc. For this reason the structure of this workshop was quite different from those of the first two held in Parma (1991), and Trieste (1992). This time the workshop was composed of just eight modules, each one consisting of two invited lectures (dealing with vision in nature and machines, respectively) and a common panel discussion (including the two lecturers and three invited panellists).

Technology Vs. Humanity

The Coming Clash Between Man and Machine

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Author: Gerd Leonhard

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780993295829

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 2139

Futurist Gerd Leonhard breaks new ground again by bringing together mankind's urge to upgrade and automate everything-down to human biology itself-with our timeless quest for freedom and happiness. Before it's too late, we must stop and ask the big questions: How do we embrace technology without becoming it? When it happens-gradually, then suddenly-the machine era will create the greatest watershed in human life on Earth. Technology vs. Humanity is one of the last moral maps we'll get as humanity enters the Jurassic Park of Big Tech. Artificial intelligence. Cognitive computing. The Singularity. Digital obesity. Printed food. The Internet of Things. The death of privacy. The end of work-as-we-know-it, and radical longevity: The imminent clash between technology and humanity is already rushing towards us. What moral values are you prepared to stand up for-before being human alters its meaning forever? Gerd Leonhard is a new kind of futurist schooled in the humanities as much as in technology. In his most provocative book to date, he explores the exponential changes swamping our societies, providing rich insights and deep wisdom for business leaders, professionals and anyone with decisions to make in this new era. If you take being human for granted, press Reset now with this passionately argued call to create a genuinely braver new world.

Humans, Animals, Machines

Blurring Boundaries

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Author: Glen A. Mazis

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780791475560

Category: Nature

Page: 274

View: 1059

Examines the overlap and blurring of boundaries among humans, animals, and machines.

Things That Make Us Smart

Defending Human Attributes in the Age of the Machine

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Author: Don Norman

Publisher: Diversion Books

ISBN: 1626815372

Category: Design

Page: 231

View: 3634

By the author of THE DESIGN OF EVERYDAY THINGS. Insightful and whimsical, profoundly intelligent and easily accessible, Don Norman has been exploring the design of our world for decades, exploring this complex relationship between humans and machines. In this seminal work, fully revised and updated, Norman gives us the first steps towards demanding a person-centered redesign of the machines we use every day. Humans have always worked with objects to extend our cognitive powers, from counting on our fingers to designing massive supercomputers. But advanced technology does more than merely assist with memory—the machines we create begin to shape how we think and, at times, even what we value. In THINGS THAT MAKE US SMART, Donald Norman explores the complex interaction between human thought and the technology it creates, arguing for the development of machines that fit our minds, rather than minds that must conform to the machine.

Transitions and Borders Between Animals, Humans and Machines 1600-1800

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Author: Tobias Cheung

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 900419181X

Category: History

Page: 199

View: 5224

Drawing on natural history, theology and philosophy, this book retraces the shifting foundations of the order of things that characterizes the period between Descartes and Kant with respect to three questions: What is an animal? What is a human? What is a machine?