Between Human and Machine

Feedback, Control, and Computing Before Cybernetics


Author: David A. Mindell

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801880575

Category: Computers

Page: 439

View: 890

"In contextualizing the theory of cybernetics, Mindell gives engineering back forgotten parts of its history, and shows how important historical circumstances are to technological change." -- Networker

Voice Communication Between Humans and Machines


Author: for the National Academy of Sciences

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309049881

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 560

View: 5123

Science fiction has long been populated with conversational computers and robots. Now, speech synthesis and recognition have matured to where a wide range of real-world applications--from serving people with disabilities to boosting the nation's competitiveness--are within our grasp. Voice Communication Between Humans and Machines takes the first interdisciplinary look at what we know about voice processing, where our technologies stand, and what the future may hold for this fascinating field. The volume integrates theoretical, technical, and practical views from world-class experts at leading research centers around the world, reporting on the scientific bases behind human-machine voice communication, the state of the art in computerization, and progress in user friendliness. It offers an up-to-date treatment of technological progress in key areas: speech synthesis, speech recognition, and natural language understanding. The book also explores the emergence of the voice processing industry and specific opportunities in telecommunications and other businesses, in military and government operations, and in assistance for the disabled. It outlines, as well, practical issues and research questions that must be resolved if machines are to become fellow problem-solvers along with humans. Voice Communication Between Humans and Machines provides a comprehensive understanding of the field of voice processing for engineers, researchers, and business executives, as well as speech and hearing specialists, advocates for people with disabilities, faculty and students, and interested individuals.

Friendly Interfaces Between Humans and Machines


Author: P. V. S Rao,Sunil Kumar Kopparapu

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 981131750X

Category: Computers

Page: 114

View: 1537

This book discusses human–machine interactions, specifically focusing on making them as natural as human–human interaction. It is based on the premise that to get the right connect between human and machines, it is essential to understand not only the behavior of the person interacting with the machine, but also the limitations of the technology. Firstly, the authors review the evolution of language as a spontaneous, natural phenomenon in the overall scheme of the evolutionary development of living beings. They then go on to examine the possible approaches to understanding and representing the meaning and the common aspects of human–human and human–machine interactions, and introduce the keyconcept-keyword (also called minimal parsing) approach as a convenient and realistic way to implement usable human–machine interface (HMI) systems. For researchers looking for practical approaches, way beyond the realms of theory, this book is a must read.

Digital Apollo

Human and Machine in Spaceflight


Author: David A. Mindell

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262266680

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 384

View: 9702

As Apollo 11's Lunar Module descended toward the moon under automatic control, a program alarm in the guidance computer's software nearly caused a mission abort. Neil Armstrong responded by switching off the automatic mode and taking direct control. He stopped monitoring the computer and began flying the spacecraft, relying on skill to land it and earning praise for a triumph of human over machine. In Digital Apollo, engineer-historian David Mindell takes this famous moment as a starting point for an exploration of the relationship between humans and computers in the Apollo program. In each of the six Apollo landings, the astronaut in command seized control from the computer and landed with his hand on the stick. Mindell recounts the story of astronauts' desire to control their spacecraft in parallel with the history of the Apollo Guidance Computer. From the early days of aviation through the birth of spaceflight, test pilots and astronauts sought to be more than "spam in a can" despite the automatic controls, digital computers, and software developed by engineers.Digital Apollo examines the design and execution of each of the six Apollo moon landings, drawing on transcripts and data telemetry from the flights, astronaut interviews, and NASA's extensive archives. Mindell's exploration of how human pilots and automated systems worked together to achieve the ultimate in flight -- a lunar landing -- traces and reframes the debate over the future of humans and automation in space. The results have implications for any venture in which human roles seem threatened by automated systems, whether it is the work at our desktops or the future of exploration.

Hello, Robot

Design zwischen Mensch und Maschine


Author: Mateo Kries,Christoph Thun-Hohenstein,Amelie Klein

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783945852101


Page: 328

View: 8452

The Fourth Discontinuity

The Co-Evolution of Humans and Machines


Author: Bruce Mazlish

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300065121

Category: Psychology

Page: 271

View: 4989

This book draws on history and legend, science and science fiction to consider the complex relationship between humans and machines. Bruce Mazlish argues that just as Copernicus, Darwin, and Freud overturned our illusions of separation from and domination over the cosmos, the animal world, and the unconscious, it is now necessary to relinquish a fourth fallacy or discontinuity-that humans are separate from the machines we make.

The Shape of Actions

What Humans and Machines Can Do


Author: Harry M. Collins,Martin Kusch,Reader in History and Philosophy of Science Martin Kusch

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262032575

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 212

View: 6816

"In this unusual, challenging, interdisciplinary book, Collins and Kusch have provided us with the best analysis we currently have of the determinants of the possibilities of automation." -- Donald MacKenzie, Department of Sociology, University of Edinburgh What can humans do? What can machines do? How do humans delegate actions to machines? In this book, Harry Collins and Martin Kusch combine insights from sociology and philosophy to provide a novel answer to these increasingly important questions. The authors begin by distinguishing between two basic types of intentional behavior, which they call polimorphic actions and mimeomorphicb actions. Polimorphic actions (such as writing a love letter) are ones that community members expect to vary with social context. Mimeomorphic actions (such a swinging a golf club) do not vary. Although machines cannot act, they can mimic mimeomorphic actions. Mimeomorphic actions are thus the crucial link between what humans can do and what machines can do. Following a presentation of their detailed categorization of actions, the authors apply their approach to a broad range of human-machine interactions and to learning. Key examples include bicycle riding and the many varieties of writing machines. They also show how their theory can be used to explain the operation of organizations such as restaurants and armies. Finally, they look at a historical case--the technological development of the air pump--applying their categorization of actions to the processes of mechanization and automation. Automation, they argue, can occur only where what we want to bring about can be brought about through mimeomorphic action.

Human and Machine Learning

Visible, Explainable, Trustworthy and Transparent


Author: Jianlong Zhou,Fang Chen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319904035

Category: Computers

Page: 482

View: 9202

With an evolutionary advancement of Machine Learning (ML) algorithms, a rapid increase of data volumes and a significant improvement of computation powers, machine learning becomes hot in different applications. However, because of the nature of “black-box” in ML methods, ML still needs to be interpreted to link human and machine learning for transparency and user acceptance of delivered solutions. This edited book addresses such links from the perspectives of visualisation, explanation, trustworthiness and transparency. The book establishes the link between human and machine learning by exploring transparency in machine learning, visual explanation of ML processes, algorithmic explanation of ML models, human cognitive responses in ML-based decision making, human evaluation of machine learning and domain knowledge in transparent ML applications. This is the first book of its kind to systematically understand the current active research activities and outcomes related to human and machine learning. The book will not only inspire researchers to passionately develop new algorithms incorporating human for human-centred ML algorithms, resulting in the overall advancement of ML, but also help ML practitioners proactively use ML outputs for informative and trustworthy decision making. This book is intended for researchers and practitioners involved with machine learning and its applications. The book will especially benefit researchers in areas like artificial intelligence, decision support systems and human-computer interaction.

Human and Machine Vision


Author: Jacob Beck,Barbara Hope,Azriel Rosenfeld

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 1483266966

Category: Reference

Page: 580

View: 9378

Human and Machine Vision provides information pertinent to an interdisciplinary program of research in visual perception. This book presents a psychophysical study of the human visual system, which provides insights on how to model the flexibility required by a general-purpose visual system. Organized into 17 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how a visual display is segmented into components on the basis of textual differences. This text then proposes three criteria for judging representations of shape. Other chapters consider an increased use of machine vision programs as models of human vision and of data from human vision in developing programs for machine vision. This book discusses as well the diversity and flexibility of systems for representing visual information. The final chapter deals with dot patterns and discusses the process of interring orientation information from collections of them. This book is a valuable resource for psychologists, neurophysiologists, and computer scientists.

Transitions and Borders Between Animals, Humans and Machines 1600-1800


Author: Tobias Cheung

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 900419181X

Category: History

Page: 199

View: 3804

Drawing on natural history, theology and philosophy, this book retraces the shifting foundations of the order of things that characterizes the period between Descartes and Kant with respect to three questions: What is an animal? What is a human? What is a machine?

Machines of Loving Grace

The Quest for Common Ground Between Humans and Robots


Author: John Markoff

Publisher: HarperCollins

ISBN: 0062266705

Category: History

Page: 400

View: 4309

As robots are increasingly integrated into modern society—on the battlefield and the road, in business, education, and health—Pulitzer-Prize-winning New York Times science writer John Markoff searches for an answer to one of the most important questions of our age: will these machines help us, or will they replace us? In the past decade alone, Google introduced us to driverless cars, Apple debuted a personal assistant that we keep in our pockets, and an Internet of Things connected the smaller tasks of everyday life to the farthest reaches of the internet. There is little doubt that robots are now an integral part of society, and cheap sensors and powerful computers will ensure that, in the coming years, these robots will soon act on their own. This new era offers the promise of immense computing power, but it also reframes a question first raised more than half a century ago, at the birth of the intelligent machine: Will we control these systems, or will they control us? In Machines of Loving Grace, New York Times reporter John Markoff, the first reporter to cover the World Wide Web, offers a sweeping history of the complicated and evolving relationship between humans and computers. Over the recent years, the pace of technological change has accelerated dramatically, reintroducing this difficult ethical quandary with newer and far weightier consequences. As Markoff chronicles the history of automation, from the birth of the artificial intelligence and intelligence augmentation communities in the 1950s, to the modern day brain trusts at Google and Apple in Silicon Valley, and on to the expanding tech corridor between Boston and New York, he traces the different ways developers have addressed this fundamental problem and urges them to carefully consider the consequences of their work. We are on the verge of a technological revolution, Markoff argues, and robots will profoundly transform the way our lives are organized. Developers must now draw a bright line between what is human and what is machine, or risk upsetting the delicate balance between them.

Our Robots, Ourselves

Robotics and the Myths of Autonomy


Author: David A. Mindell

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 0698157664

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 208

View: 6478

“[An] essential book… it is required reading as we seriously engage one of the most important debates of our time.”—Sherry Turkle, author of Reclaiming Conversation: The Power of Talk in a Digital Age From drones to Mars rovers—an exploration of the most innovative use of robots today and a provocative argument for the crucial role of humans in our increasingly technological future. In Our Robots, Ourselves, David Mindell offers a fascinating behind-the-scenes look at the cutting edge of robotics today, debunking commonly held myths and exploring the rapidly changing relationships between humans and machines. Drawing on firsthand experience, extensive interviews, and the latest research from MIT and elsewhere, Mindell takes us to extreme environments—high atmosphere, deep ocean, and outer space—to reveal where the most advanced robotics already exist. In these environments, scientists use robots to discover new information about ancient civilizations, to map some of the world’s largest geological features, and even to “commute” to Mars to conduct daily experiments. But these tools of air, sea, and space also forecast the dangers, ethical quandaries, and unintended consequences of a future in which robotics and automation suffuse our everyday lives. Mindell argues that the stark lines we’ve drawn between human and not human, manual and automated, aren’t helpful for understanding our relationship with robotics. Brilliantly researched and accessibly written, Our Robots, Ourselves clarifies misconceptions about the autonomous robot, offering instead a hopeful message about what he calls “rich human presence” at the center of the technological landscape we are now creating. From the Hardcover edition.

Leben 3.0

Mensch sein im Zeitalter Künstlicher Intelligenz


Author: Max Tegmark

Publisher: Ullstein Buchverlage

ISBN: 3843716706

Category: Social Science

Page: 528

View: 380

Die Nobelpreis-Schmiede Massachusetts Institute of Technology ist der bedeutendste technologische Think Tank der USA. Dort arbeitet Professor Max Tegmark mit den weltweit führenden Entwicklern künstlicher Intelligenz zusammen, die ihm exklusive Einblicke in ihre Labors gewähren. Die Erkenntnisse, die er daraus zieht, sind atemberaubend und zutiefst verstörend zugleich. Neigt sich die Ära der Menschen dem Ende zu? Der Physikprofessor Max Tegmark zeigt anhand der neusten Forschung, was die Menschheit erwartet. Hier eine Auswahl möglicher Szenarien: - Eroberer: Künstliche Intelligenz übernimmt die Macht und entledigt sich der Menschheit mit Methoden, die wir noch nicht einmal verstehen. - Der versklavte Gott: Die Menschen bemächtigen sich einer superintelligenten künstlichen Intelligenz und nutzen sie, um Hochtechnologien herzustellen. - Umkehr: Der technologische Fortschritt wird radikal unterbunden und wir kehren zu einer prä-technologischen Gesellschaft im Stil der Amish zurück. - Selbstzerstörung: Superintelligenz wird nicht erreicht, weil sich die Menschheit vorher nuklear oder anders selbst vernichtet. - Egalitäres Utopia: Es gibt weder Superintelligenz noch Besitz, Menschen und kybernetische Organismen existieren friedlich nebeneinander. Max Tegmark bietet kluge und fundierte Zukunftsszenarien basierend auf seinen exklusiven Einblicken in die aktuelle Forschung zur künstlichen Intelligenz.

Human and Machine Consciousness


Author: David Gamez

Publisher: Open Book Publishers

ISBN: 1783743018

Category: Philosophy

Page: 234

View: 7607

Consciousness is widely perceived as one of the most fundamental, interesting and difficult problems of our time. However, we still know next to nothing about the relationship between consciousness and the brain and we can only speculate about the consciousness of animals and machines. Human and Machine Consciousness presents a new foundation for the scientific study of consciousness. It sets out a bold interpretation of consciousness that neutralizes the philosophical problems and explains how we can make scientific predictions about the consciousness of animals, brain-damaged patients and machines. Gamez interprets the scientific study of consciousness as a search for mathematical theories that map between measurements of consciousness and measurements of the physical world. We can use artificial intelligence to discover these theories and they could make accurate predictions about the consciousness of humans, animals and artificial systems. Human and Machine Consciousness also provides original insights into unusual conscious experiences, such as hallucinations, religious experiences and out-of-body states, and demonstrates how ‘designer’ states of consciousness could be created in the future. Gamez explains difficult concepts in a clear way that closely engages with scientific research. His punchy, concise prose is packed with vivid examples, making it suitable for the educated general reader as well as philosophers and scientists. Problems are brought to life in colourful illustrations and a helpful summary is given at the end of each chapter. The endnotes provide detailed discussions of individual points and full references to the scientific and philosophical literature.

Technology in American Drama, 1920-1950

Soul and Society in the Age of the Machine


Author: Dennis G. Jerz

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780313321726

Category: Drama

Page: 167

View: 3780

This study explores the relationship between humans and machines during an age when technology became increasingly domesticated and accepted as an index to the American dream. The marriage between dramatic art and dramatic technology stems from the physical realities of staging and from the intimate connection of technology with human labor inside and outside the household. This book examines how American dramatists of the 1920s drew upon European Expressionism and innovative staging techniques to develop their characters and themes, and how later playwrights, such as Tennessee Williams and Arthur Miller, established the American dramatic canon when technology had become a conventional and integral component of domestic life. Technology in American Drama, 1920-1950, explores the relationship between humans and machines during an age when technology became increasingly domesticated and accepted as an index to the American dream. The marriage between dramatic art and dramatic technology stems from both the physical realities of staging and the intimate connection of technology with human labor inside and outside the household. Technology shapes and defines the values of the soul, individually and collectively, in addition to producing the external environment in which people live. This book studies how playwrights of the era reflected the changing role of technology in American society. Drawing on the experiments of European Expressionism, American dramatists of the 1920s found new techniques for developing character and theme, along with innovative staging devices, such as the threatening machines in Elmer Rice's The Adding Machine, Sophie Treadwell's Machinal, and Eugene O'Neill's Dynamo. By the time Thornton Wilder, Tennessee Williams, and Arthur Miller established the canon of American drama, technology was no longer an impersonal force to be resisted, but a conventional and integral component of domestic life. In examining these dramatists and their works, this book provides an insightful analysis of a largely neglected topic.

Human and Machine Perception 2

Emergence, Attention, and Creativity


Author: Virginio Cantoni,Vito di Gesù,Alessandra Setti,Domenico Tegolo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306462917

Category: Computers

Page: 222

View: 6877

The following are the proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Human and Machine Perception held in Pavia, Italy, on September 14 -17, 1998. This edition has been under the auspices of two Institutions: the Cybernetic and Biophysics Group (GNCB) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR), the Centro Interdipartimentale di Scienze Cognitive, of Pavia University and the Centro Interdipartimentale Tecnologie della Conoscenza, of Palermo University. A wide spectrum of topics is covered in this series, ranging from computer perception to psychology and physiology of perception, for analysing and comparing biological and artificial approaches. The theme of this workshop was focused on "Emergence, Attention and Creativity". The workshop structure consisted of five modules each one composed of two invited lectures (dealing with solutions in nature and machines respectively) and a panel discussion. The lectures focused on presenting the state-of-the-art and outlining open questions. In particular, they sought to stress links, suggesting possible synergies between different cultural areas. The panel discussion was conceived as a forum for an open debate, briefly introduced by each panellist, and mainly aimed at deeper investigation for the different approaches and strictly related topics. The panellists were asked to prepare a few statements on hot-points, which were delivered in advance to the participants as a guide for a qualified discussion.

Human + Machine

Künstliche Intelligenz und die Zukunft der Arbeit


Author: Paul R. Daugherty,H. James Wilson

Publisher: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag

ISBN: 3423435100

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 288

View: 3397

Künstliche Intelligenz: Herausforderung und Chance »Daugherty und Wilson entwerfen einen Plan für eine Zukunft, in der künstliche Intelligenz unsere Menschlichkeit erweitert. Voll mit Beispielen, Anleitung und Anregung, hilft ihr Buch, KI zu verstehen – welche Bedeutung sie für unser Leben hat und wie wir sie so gut wie möglich nutzen können.« Arianna Huffington, Mitbegründerin der ›Huffington Post‹; CEO, Thrive Global Künstliche Intelligenz ist keine Zukunftsvision, sie ist längst da – in Programmen, die spüren, was wir brauchen, Lieferketten, die in Echtzeit »denken«, und Robotern, die auf Veränderungen in ihrem Umfeld reagieren. Arbeitsprozesse werden damit fließender und anpassungsfähiger, was es Firmen ermöglicht, sie schnell zu ändern – oder sie komplett neu zu denken. KI verändert gerade alle Regeln, nach denen Unternehmen arbeiten. Aufbauend auf ihrem Erfahrungswissen und einer globalen Studie mit 1500 Unternehmen zeigen die Autoren, welche Rolle KI schon heute spielt und wie Mensch und Maschine künftig als Team zusammenarbeiten werden. Sie beschreiben völlig neue hybride Formen der Interaktion und geben den Verantwortlichen einen Leitfaden an die Hand. Und sie sind überzeugt: KI bietet auch eine große Chance, die Arbeit menschlicher und abwechslungsreicher zu gestalten. »Ein klarer Leitfaden für Führungskräfte, um die Chancen rund um die vierte industrielle Revolution und künstliche Intelligenz zu ergreifen. Folgen wir Daughertys und Wilsons Aufruf, neu zu denken und die Belegschaft auf eine neue Form der Zusammenarbeit vorzubereiten, dann ebnen wir den Weg für eine bessere Zukunft für uns alle.« Klaus Schwab, Gründer und Präsident des Weltwirtschaftsforums »Daugherty und Wilson leisten einen entscheidenden Beitrag zur Zukunft des Zusammenspiels von Mensch und Maschine. Mit ihrer umfassenden Kompetenz und großem Enthusiasmus zeigen uns die Autoren einen Weg in eine erfolgreiche Zukunft auf.« Satya Nadella, CEO, Microsoft »›Human + Machine‹ ist das menschlichste und aufgeklärteste Buch zum Thema künstliche Intelligenz, das ich je gelesen habe. Wer sich mit unserer Zukunft auseinandersetzt, braucht dieses Buch.« Steffi Czerny, Gründerin und Geschäftsführerin DLD Conferences »Wie können Unternehmen die Belegschaft beim Übergang ins Zeitalter der künstlichen Intelligenz unterstützen? Diese fundamentale Frage beantworten Daugherty und Wilson. Zweifelsohne ist ›Human + Machine‹ das Handbuch, das wir brauchen, um voranzukommen.« Henning Kagermann, Vorsitzender des Kuratoriums der Deutschen Akademie der Technikwissenschaften (acatech) »Die Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der künstlichen Intelligenz haben Innovationen einen völlig neuen Schub verliehen. Dieser Wendepunkt unserer Geschichte konfrontiert uns aber auch mit schnellen Veränderungen. Es liegt an unserer Führung, den Wandel in die richtigen Bahnen zu lenken. Im Kern geht es bei künstlicher Intelligenz darum, menschliche Fähigkeiten zu ergänzen und zu verbessern – letztendlich also darum, menschliches Potenzial durch Technologie freizusetzen. ›Human + Machine‹ ist ein praktischer Leitfaden, um künstliche Intelligenz zu verstehen, gerade hinsichtlich der Auswirkungen auf eine bessere Zukunft für Gesellschaft und Unternehmen.« Bernd Leukert, Mitglied des Vorstands, SAP SE

Human and Machine Perception 3

Thinking, Deciding, and Acting


Author: Virginio Cantoni,Vito di Gesù,Alessandra Setti,Domenico Tegolo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461513618

Category: Computers

Page: 245

View: 1088

The following are the proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Human and Machine Perception held in Palermo, Italy, on June 20 -23, 2000, under the auspices of three Institutions: the Cybernetic and Biophysics Group (GNCB) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR) and the two Inter-Department Centers of Cognitive Sciences of Palermo and Pavia University respectively. A broad spectrum of topics are covered in this series, ranging from computer perception to psychology and physiology of perception. The theme of this workshop on Human and Machine Perception was focused on Thinking, Deciding, and Acting. As in the past editions the final goal has been the analysis and the comparison of biological and artificial solutions. The focus of the lectures has been on presenting the state-of-the-art and outlining open questions. In particular, they sought to stress links, suggesting possible synergies between the different cultural areas. The panel discussion has been conceived as a forum for an open debate, briefly introduced by each panelist, and mainly aimed at deeper investigation of the different approaches to perception and strictly related topics. The panelists were asked to prepare a few statements on hot-points as a guide for discussion. These statements were delivered to the participants together with the final program, for a more qualified discussion.