Before Prozac

The Troubled History of Mood Disorders in Psychiatry

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Author: Edward Shorter

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195368746

Category: Medical

Page: 304

View: 1612

Psychiatry today is a barren tundra, writes medical historian Edward Shorter, where drugs that don't work are used to treat diseases that don't exist. In this provocative volume, Shorter illuminates this dismal landscape, in a revealing account of why psychiatry is "losing ground" in the struggle to treat depression.Naturally, the book looks at such culprits as the pharmaceutical industry, which is not inclined to market drugs once the patent expires, leading to the endless introduction of new--but not necessarily better--drugs. But the heart of the book focuses on an unexpected villain: the FDA, the very agency charged with ensuring drug safety and effectiveness. Shorter describes how the FDA permits companies to test new products only against placebo. If you can beat sugar pills, you get your drug licensed, whether or not it is actually better than (or even as good as) current medications, thus sweeping from the shelves drugs that may be superior but have lost patent protection. The book also examines the FDA's early power struggles against the drug industry, an influence-grab that had little to do with science, and which left barbiturates, opiates, and amphetamines all underprescribed, despite the fact that under careful supervision they are better at treating depression, with fewer side effects, than the newer drugs in the Prozac family. Shorter also castigates academia, showing how two forms of depression, melancholia and nonmelancholia--"as different from each other as chalk and cheese"--became squeezed into one dubious classification, major depression, which was essentially a political artifact born of academic infighting.An astonishing and troubling look at modern psychiatry, Losing Ground is a book that is sure to spark controversy for years to come.

Spannungsherde

Psychochirurgie nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg

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Author: Marietta Meier

Publisher: Wallstein Verlag

ISBN: 3835328441

Category: History

Page: 392

View: 5025

Eine packende Studie, die dafür plädiert, unseren Blick auf Emotionen, das Gehirn und das Selbst in einen breiteren Kontext zu stellen. 1935 entwickelte ein portugiesischer Neurologe die Lobotomie. Die Operation sollte schwere psychische Störungen lindern, stieß aber in der Fachwelt auf harsche Kritik. Sie brach ein Tabu, weil sie direkt ins Gehirn eingriff und die Persönlichkeit der Patienten veränderte. Nach dem Ende des Zweiten Weltkriegs setzte sich das Verfahren jedoch breit durch. Da die Zahl psychochirurgischer Eingriffe schnell zunahm, erschlossen sich auch der Forschung neue Chancen. Nun hieß es, die Lobotomie löse die »affektive Spannung" psychisch Kranker, wirke sogar in »hoffnungslosen Fällen" und entlaste neben der Anstaltspsychiatrie auch die Gesellschaft. Obwohl Experten die Methode schon im Laufe der 1950er Jahre immer skeptischer beurteilten, kam die Ära der Lobotomie erst zum Abschluss, als die Psychiatrie um 1970 zunehmend ins Kreuzfeuer öffentlicher Kritik geriet. Marietta Meier untersucht die Geschichte eines Behandlungsverfahrens, das körperliche, psychische und soziale Spannungen lösen sollte, gleichzeitig aber grundsätzliche ethische, wissenschaftliche und gesellschaftspolitische Fragen aufwarf. Sie legt den Fokus auf die Schweiz, nimmt jedoch den ganzen deutsch- und französischsprachigen Raum Europas und dessen Verbindungen zur angelsächsischen Welt in den Blick. Auf diese Weise lässt sich nicht nur zeigen, wie lokale Praktiken, nationale Rahmenbedingungen und internationale Debatten ineinandergriffen. Der vielschichtige Ansatz macht auch klar, wie Subjekt-, Wissens-, Geschlechter- und Gesellschaftsordnung in der Nachkriegszeit zusammenspielten.

Handbuch Psychoaktive Substanzen

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Author: Maximilian von Heyden,Henrik Jungaberle,Tomislav Majić

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642551254

Category: Psychology

Page: 713

View: 2299

Das Handbuch Psychoaktive Substanzen bietet einen fundierten Überblick und vereint das aktuelle Grundlagenwissen einer neu entstehenden Drogenwissenschaft, die psychoaktive Substanzen mehrdimensional betrachtet, Chancen und Risiken bilanziert und gegenwärtige Debatten mit Fakten fundiert. Das Handbuch ist ein wichtiges Referenzdokument für verschiedene Disziplinen und Professionen; von Medizinern, Psychologen, Suchttherapeuten, Pharmakologen und Neurowissenschaftlern zu Sozialwissenschaftlern, (Sozial-)Pädagogen, Kriminologen, Juristen und Polizisten. Es ist außerdem für jene Personen von Interesse, die sich mit den soziokulturellen und historischen Aspekten des Ge- und Missbrauchs von psychoaktiven Substanzen beschäftigen – einschließlich Lehrern, Journalisten und Politikern. Basierend auf einem interdisziplinären Ansatz wird in den Kapiteln das komplexe Wirkungsgefüge zwischen Mensch und psychoaktiven Substanzen untersucht und in strukturierter und übersichtlicher Weise zugänglich gemacht. Aktuelle Entwicklungen wie das Erscheinen neuer psychoaktiver Substanzen (NPS) sowie die kulturellen und politischen Veränderungen der letzten Jahre werden ebenfalls beleuchtet. The Handbook of Psychoactive Substances integrates the current knowledge base of the evolving field of drug science that views psychoactive substances from an interdisciplinary perspective. Opportunities and risks are balanced alongside objective facts in order to add to current debates. The Handbook is an important reference document, with relevance to many disciplines and professions; from medical doctors, psychologists, addiction therapists, pharmacologists and neuroscientists to criminologists, police officers, lawyers and attorneys. It will also be of interest to those involved in the socio-cultural and historical aspects of drug use and misuse, including teachers, journalists and politicians. In a helpful structured form the handbook offers user-friendly and trustworthy information concerning classes of psychoactive substances. Chapters explore psychoactive drugs as therapeutic tools, their benefits for medicine and research and the problems associated with their harmful use. Current developments, including the recent appearance of Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) and the associated political and cultural changes in recent years are also explored in the book.

Philosophical issues in psychiatry III

The Nature and Sources of Historical Change

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Author: Kenneth S. Kendler,Josef Parnas

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191038865

Category: Medical

Page: 408

View: 2901

Psychiatry has long struggled with the nature of its diagnoses. The problems raised by questions about the nature of psychiatric illness are particularly fascinating because they sit at the intersection of philosophy, empirical psychiatric/psychological research, measurement theory, historical tradition and policy. In being the only medical specialty that diagnoses and treats mental illness, psychiatry has been subject to major changes in the last 150 years. This book explores the forces that have shaped these changes and especially how substantial "internal" advances in our knowledge of the nature and causes of psychiatric illness have interacted with a plethora of external forces that have impacted on the psychiatric profession. It includes contributions from philosophers of science with an interest in psychiatry, psychiatrists and psychologists with expertise in the history of their field and historians of psychiatry. Each chapter is accompanied by an introduction and a commentary. The result is a dynamic discussion about the nature of psychiatric disorders, and a book that is compelling reading for those in the field of mental health, history of science and medicine, and philosophy.

Overdiagnosis in Psychiatry

How Modern Psychiatry Lost Its Way While Creating a Diagnosis for Almost All of Life's Misfortunes

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Author: Joel Paris

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199350655

Category: Medical

Page: 272

View: 9079

Dr. Joel Paris's Overdiagnosis in Psychiatry takes a much-needed look at the dangerous epidemic of unnecessary or incorrect treatments. The last 30 years of psychiatry have seen the development of a system of classification aimed at establishing greater scientific credibility. Unfortunately, the current categories are based entirely on signs and symptoms rather than on causes, which remain unknown. This has inevitably made diagnosis imprecise and uncertain. The result is that well-meaning professionals can have problems separating psychopathology from normality, can be unduly influenced by diagnostic fads, and can ultimately wind up prescribing treatments that do more harm than good. Paris examines prominent examples of overused diagnoses including major depressive disorder, ADHD, bipolar-II disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and PTSD.

Depression, An Issue of Psychiatric Clinics - E-Book

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Author: David Mintz

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 1455743100

Category: Medical

Page: 296

View: 1640

This issue discusses the diagnosis and treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other depressive disorders, with an emphasis on the psychosocial aspects of depression: how it affects societies, how it is affected by culture, and what the true meaning of recovery is for those suffering from MDD. The issue is divided into three section: Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatment. Authors address the evidence where biology and subjectivity meet. They discuss what is adaptive and what is pathologic and discuss population-based solutions that take into account the specificity of the individual. Authors also take into account combination treatments of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy and weigh the treatment choices against specific patient subtypes.

All We Have to Fear

Psychiatry's Transformation of Natural Anxieties into Mental Disorders

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Author: Allan V. Horwitz, PhD,Jerome C. Wakefield, DSW, PhD

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199978867

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 320

View: 8504

Thirty years ago, it was estimated that less than five percent of the population had an anxiety disorder. Today, some estimates are over fifty percent, a tenfold increase. Is this dramatic rise evidence of a real medical epidemic? In All We Have to Fear, Allan Horwitz and Jerome Wakefield argue that psychiatry itself has largely generated this "epidemic" by inflating many natural fears into psychiatric disorders, leading to the over-diagnosis of anxiety disorders and the over-prescription of anxiety-reducing drugs. American psychiatry currently identifies disordered anxiety as irrational anxiety disproportionate to a real threat. Horwitz and Wakefield argue, to the contrary, that it can be a perfectly normal part of our nature to fear things that are not at all dangerous--from heights to negative judgments by others to scenes that remind us of past threats (as in some forms of PTSD). Indeed, this book argues strongly against the tendency to call any distressing condition a "mental disorder." To counter this trend, the authors provide an innovative and nuanced way to distinguish between anxiety conditions that are psychiatric disorders and likely require medical treatment and those that are not--the latter including anxieties that seem irrational but are the natural products of evolution. The authors show that many commonly diagnosed "irrational" fears--such as a fear of snakes, strangers, or social evaluation--have evolved over time in response to situations that posed serious risks to humans in the past, but are no longer dangerous today. Drawing on a wide range of disciplines including psychiatry, evolutionary psychology, sociology, anthropology, and history, the book illuminates the nature of anxiety in America, making a major contribution to our understanding of mental health.

Diagnosis, therapy, and evidence

conundrums in modern American medicine

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Author: Gerald N. Grob,Allan V. Horwitz

Publisher: Rutgers Univ Pr

ISBN: N.A

Category: Medical

Page: 253

View: 4791

In "Diagnosis, Therapy, and Evidence," Gerald N. Grob and Allan V. Horwitz employ historical and contemporary data and case studies, combining into one book a variety of medical and psychiatric conditions. They utilize case studies and examine tonsillectomy, cancer, heart disease, PTSD, anxiety, and depression, and identify differences between rhetoric and reality and the weaknesses in diagnosis and treatment.

Canadian Who's Who 2009

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Author: Elizabeth Lumley

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780802040923

Category: Reference

Page: 1445

View: 8885

Now in its ninety-ninth year of publication, this standard Canadian reference source contains the most comprehensive and authoritative biographical information on notable living Canadians. Those listed are carefully selected because of the positions they hold in Canadian society, or because of the contribution they have made to life in Canada. The volume is updated annually to ensure accuracy, and 600 new entries are added each year to keep current with developing trends and issues in Canadian society. Included are outstanding Canadians from all walks of life: politics, media, academia, business, sports, and the arts, from every area of human activity. Each entry details birth date and place, education, family, career history, memberships, creative works, honours and awards, and full addresses. Indispensable to researchers, students, media, business, government, and schools, Canadian Who's Who is an invaluable source of general knowledge.

Brave New Brain

Geist - Gehirn - Genom

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Author: Nancy C. Andreasen

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642559514

Category: Psychology

Page: 430

View: 9303

Nancy Andreasen, führende Neurowissenschaftlerin, Herausgeberin des angesehenen American Journal of Psychiatry und ausgezeichnet mit der National Medal of Science, zeigt uns in ihrem neuen Buch die Zusammenhänge zwischen Gehirn und Genom. Dank modernster Methoden und Entdeckungen in Neurowissenschaften und Molekularbiologie wissen Forscher mehr denn je über die Funktionen des Gehirns. Die Autorin beschreibt auf faszinierende und verständliche Weise, wie alles zusammenhängt - von Milliarden kleinster Neuronen im Thalamus bis hin zur moralischen Kontrollinstanz im präfrontalen Kortex. Sie erklärt die Entschlüsselung des Genoms, dessen 30000-40000 Gene fast alle in irgendeiner Form in unserem Gehirn aktiv sind. In fesselnden Geschichten beleuchtet sie aber auch, wie sich psychische Störungen entwickeln und welche Auswirkungen sie auf Patienten und Angehörige haben. Nancy Andreasen gelingt der Brückenschlag zwischen hochkomplexen Inhalten und spannender Lektüre.

Choice

Publication of the Association of College and Research Libraries, a Division of the American Library Association

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Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Academic libraries

Page: N.A

View: 8710

Das erschöpfte Selbst

Depression und Gesellschaft in der Gegenwart

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Author: Alain Ehrenberg

Publisher: Campus Verlag

ISBN: 3593375931

Category: Political Science

Page: 305

View: 5773

Eigenverantwortung, Selbstverwirklichung, Erfolg und Glück sind Ansprüche, die in der modernen kapitalistischen Gesellschaft wie selbstverständlich von jedem und jeder übernommen werden. Viele Menschen scheitern daran und reagieren mit innerer Leere, mit Depression, Antriebslosigkeit und Suchtverhalten, so die Analyse des französischen Soziologen Alain Ehrenberg, dessen Buch in Frankreich zum Bestseller wurde.

Der Welt nicht mehr verbunden

Die wahren Ursachen von Depressionen - und unerwartete Lösungen

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Author: Johann Hari

Publisher: HarperCollins

ISBN: 3959678231

Category: Self-Help

Page: 448

View: 4938

Das erste Rätsel, vor dem ich stand, war: Wie konnte es sein, dass ich immer noch depressiv war, obwohl ich Antidepressiva nahm? Ich machte alles richtig - und doch lief etwas falsch. Warum? Das zweite Rätsel: Warum gibt es heute so viel mehr Menschen, die unter Depressionen und schweren Ängsten leiden? Was hat sich verändert? Da ging mir auf, dass noch ein drittes Rätsel über allem schwebte. Konnte es sein, dass etwas anderes, und nicht die Chemie in meinem Hirn, Depressionen und Ängste bei mir und so vielen anderen Menschen auslöste? Und wenn ja: Was konnte es sein? »Wenn Sie sich jemals niedergeschlagen oder verloren gefühlt haben, wird dieses Buch Ihr Leben ändern.« Elton John »Eine wunderbare und bestechende Analyse.« Hillary Clinton »Ein Buch, das viel über unsere innere Verzweiflung und unseren Lebenswandel verrät« Naomi Klein »Ein brillanter, anregender und radikaler Ansatz zur psychischen Gesundheit« Matt Haig

Medication Madness

A Psychiatrist Exposes the Dangers of Mood-Altering Medications

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Author: Peter R. Breggin, M.D.

Publisher: St. Martin's Press

ISBN: 146682395X

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 400

View: 9426

Medications for everything from depression and anxiety to ADHD and insomnia are being prescribed in alarming numbers across the country, but the "cure" is often worse than the original problem. Medication Madness is a fascinating, frightening, and dramatic look at the role that psychiatric medications have played in fifty cases of suicide, murder, and other violent, criminal, and bizarre behaviors. As a psychiatrist who believes in holding people responsible for their conduct, the weight of scientific evidence and years of clinical experience eventually convinced Dr. Breggin that psychiatric drugs frequently cause individuals to lose their judgment and their ability to control their emotions and actions. Medication Madness raises and examines the issues surrounding personal responsibility when behavior seems driven by drug-induced adverse reactions and intoxication. Dr. Breggin personally evaluated the cases in the book in his role as a treating psychiatrist, consultant or medical expert. He interviewed survivors and witnesses, and reviewed extensive medical, occupational, educational and police records. The great majority of individuals lived exemplary lives and committed no criminal or bizarre actions prior to taking the psychiatric medications. Medication Madness reads like a medical thriller, true crime story, and courtroom drama; but it is firmly based in the latest scientific research and dozens of case studies. The lives of the children and adults in these stories, as well as the lives of their families and their victims, were thrown into turmoil and sometimes destroyed by the unanticipated effects of psychiatric drugs. In some cases our entire society was transformed by the tragic outcomes. Many categories of psychiatric drugs can cause potentially horrendous reactions. Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft, Adderall, Ritalin, Concerta, Xanax, lithium, Zyprexa and other psychiatric medications may spellbind patients into believing they are improved when too often they are becoming worse. Psychiatric drugs drive some people into psychosis, mania, depression, suicide, agitation, compulsive violence and loss of self-control without the individuals realizing that their medications have deformed their way of thinking and feeling. This book documents how the FDA, the medical establishment and the pharmaceutical industry have over-sold the value of psychiatric drugs. It serves as a cautionary tale about our reliance on potentially dangerous psychoactive chemicals to relieve our emotional problems and provides a positive approach to taking personal charge of our lives.

Sind Sie hochsensibel?

Wie Sie Ihre Empfindsamkeit erkennen, verstehen und nutzen

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Author: Elaine N. Aron

Publisher: MVG Verlag

ISBN: 3864153298

Category: Self-Help

Page: 376

View: 3707

Intensiver sehen, hören, fühlen – wenn Ihre Empfindungen Sie zu überwältigen drohen Wie nehmen Sie Ihre Welt wahr? Beeinträchtigen Lärm, Gerüche oder Stress Ihr Wohlbefinden? Haben Sie eine reiche Vorstellungskraft und lebendige Träume? Spüren Sie Feinheiten in Ihrer Umgebung auf und können Sie sich auf Ihre Intuition verlassen? Wenn Sie diese Fragen mit "ja" beantworten, dann sind Sie wahrscheinlich hochsensibel und äußerst feinfühlig in der Wahrnehmung äußerer Eindrücke. Hochsensible Menschen stoßen im Alltag jedoch auf viele Schwierigkeiten und werden oft fälschlicherweise als schüchtern stigmatisiert. Elaine N. Aron ist selbst hochsensibel. Einfühlsam und fundiert, basierend auf wissenschaftlichen Untersuchungen und Hunderten von Gesprächen, gibt sie einen umfassenden Einblick in das Phänomen Hochsensibilität. Sie gibt Ratschläge im Umgang mit Hürden im Alltag und erläutert, wie hochsensible Menschen zu einem ganz neuen Selbstbewusstsein finden.