Before Prozac

The Troubled History of Mood Disorders in Psychiatry

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Author: Edward Shorter

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195368746

Category: Medical

Page: 304

View: 9844

Psychiatry today is a barren tundra, writes medical historian Edward Shorter, where drugs that don't work are used to treat diseases that don't exist. In this provocative volume, Shorter illuminates this dismal landscape, in a revealing account of why psychiatry is "losing ground" in the struggle to treat depression.Naturally, the book looks at such culprits as the pharmaceutical industry, which is not inclined to market drugs once the patent expires, leading to the endless introduction of new--but not necessarily better--drugs. But the heart of the book focuses on an unexpected villain: the FDA, the very agency charged with ensuring drug safety and effectiveness. Shorter describes how the FDA permits companies to test new products only against placebo. If you can beat sugar pills, you get your drug licensed, whether or not it is actually better than (or even as good as) current medications, thus sweeping from the shelves drugs that may be superior but have lost patent protection. The book also examines the FDA's early power struggles against the drug industry, an influence-grab that had little to do with science, and which left barbiturates, opiates, and amphetamines all underprescribed, despite the fact that under careful supervision they are better at treating depression, with fewer side effects, than the newer drugs in the Prozac family. Shorter also castigates academia, showing how two forms of depression, melancholia and nonmelancholia--"as different from each other as chalk and cheese"--became squeezed into one dubious classification, major depression, which was essentially a political artifact born of academic infighting.An astonishing and troubling look at modern psychiatry, Losing Ground is a book that is sure to spark controversy for years to come.

How Everyone Became Depressed

The Rise and Fall of the Nervous Breakdown

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Author: Edward Shorter

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199948097

Category: Medical

Page: 296

View: 9089

About one American in five receives a diagnosis of major depression over the course of a lifetime. That's despite the fact that many such patients have no mood disorder; they're not sad, but suffer from anxiety, fatigue, insomnia, or a tendency to obsess about the whole business. "There is a term for what they have," writes Edward Shorter, "and it's a good old-fashioned term that has gone out of use. They have nerves." In How Everyone Became Depressed, Edward Shorter, a distinguished professor of psychiatry and the history of medicine argues for a return to the old fashioned concept of nervous illness. These are, he writes, diseases of the entire body, not the mind, and as was recognized as early as the 1600s. Shorter traces the evolution of the concept of "nerves" and the "nervous breakdown" in western medical thought. He points to a great paradigm shift in the first third of the twentieth century, driven especially by Freud, that transferred behavioral disorders from neurology to psychiatry, spotlighting the mind, not the body. The catch-all term "depression" now applies to virtually everything, "a jumble of non-disease entities, created by political infighting within psychiatry, by competitive struggles in the pharmaceutical industry, and by the whimsy of the regulators." Depression is a real and very serious illness, he argues; it should not be diagnosed so promiscuously, and certainly not without regard to the rest of the body. Meloncholia, he writes, "the quintessence of the nervous breakdown, reaches deep into the endocrine system, which governs the thyroid and adrenal glands among other organs." In a learned yet provocative challenge to psychiatry, Shorter argues that the continuing misuse of "depression" represents nothing less than "the failure of the scientific imagination."

A Historical Dictionary of Psychiatry

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Author: Edward Shorter

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195176685

Category: Medical

Page: 338

View: 3796

This is the first historical dictionary of psychiatry. It covers the subject from autism to Vienna, and includes the key concepts, individuals, places, and institutions that have shaped the evolution of psychiatry and the neurosciences from their origin until the present. Among those who will appreciate this invaluable and unprecedented work of reference are clinicians curious about the origins of concepts they use in their daily practices, students of medical history keen to situate the psychiatric narrative within larger events, and the general public curious about illnesses that might affect them, their families and their communities-or readers who merely want to know about the grand chain of events from the asylum to Freud to Prozac. The Dictionary rest on an enormous base of primary sources that cover the growth of psychiatry through all of Western society.

A history of psychiatry

from the era of the asylum to the age of Prozac

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Author: Edward Shorter

Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: 9780471245315

Category: History

Page: 448

View: 634

"PPPP . . . To compress 200 years of psychiatric theory and practice into a compelling and coherent narrative is a fine achievement . . . . What strikes the reader [most] are Shorter's storytelling skills, his ability to conjure up the personalities of the psychiatrists who shaped the discipline and the conditions under which they and their patients lived."--Ray Monk The Mail on Sunday magazine, U.K. "An opinionated, anecdote-rich history. . . . While psychiatrists may quibble, and Freudians and other psychoanalysts will surely squawk, those without a vested interest will be thoroughly entertained and certainly enlightened."--Kirkus Reviews. "Shorter tells his story with immense panache, narrative clarity, and genuinely deep erudition."--Roy Porter Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine. In A History of Psychiatry, Edward Shorter shows us the harsh, farcical, and inspiring realities of society's changing attitudes toward and attempts to deal with its mentally ill and the efforts of generations of scientists and physicians to ease their suffering. He paints vivid portraits of psychiatry's leading historical figures and pulls no punches in assessing their roles in advancing or sidetracking our understanding of the origins of mental illness. Shorter also identifies the scientific and cultural factors that shaped the development of psychiatry. He reveals the forces behind the unparalleled sophistication of psychiatry in Germany during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries as well as the emergence of the United States as the world capital of psychoanalysis. This engagingly written, thoroughly researched, and fiercely partisan account is compelling reading for anyone with a personal, intellectual, or professional interest in psychiatry.

Shock Therapy

A History of Electroconvulsive Treatment in Mental Illness

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Author: Edward Shorter,David Healy (MRC Psych.)

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 0813541697

Category: Medical

Page: 382

View: 3455

Shock therapy is making a comeback today in the treatment of serious mental illness. Despite its reemergence as a safe and effective psychiatric tool, however, it continues to be shrouded by a longstanding negative public image, not least due to films such as the classic One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest, where the inmate of a psychiatric clinic (played by Jack Nicholson) is subjected to electro-shock to curb his rebellious behavior. Beyond its vilification in popular culture, the stereotype of convulsive therapy as a dangerous and inhumane practice is fuelled by professional posturing and public misinformation. Electroconvulsive therapy, or ECT, has in the last thirty years been considered a method of last resort in the treatment of debilitating depression, suicidal ideation, and other forms of mental illness. Yet, ironically, its effectiveness in treating these patients would suggest it as a frontline therapy, bringing relief from acute symptoms and saving lives. In this book, Edward Shorter and David Healy trace the controversial history of ECT and other "shock" therapies. Drawing on case studies, public debates, extensive interviews, and archival research, the authors expose the myths about ECT that have proliferated over the years. By showing ECT's often life-saving results, Shorter and Healy endorse a point of view that is hotly contested in professional circles and in public debates, but for the nearly half of all clinically depressed patients who do not respond to drugs, this book brings much needed hope.

From Paralysis to Fatigue

A History of Psychosomatic Illness in the Modern Era

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Author: Edward Shorter

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1439105642

Category: Psychology

Page: 420

View: 4522

The first book to put the physical symptoms of stress in their historical and cultural context. This fascinating history of psychosomatic disorders shows how patients throughout the centuries have produced symptoms in tandem with the cultural shifts of the larger society. Newly popularized diseases such as "chronic fatigue syndrome" and "total allergy syndrome" are only the most recent examples of patients complaining of ailments that express the truths about the culture in which they live.

Medicating Children

ADHD and Pediatric Mental Health

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Author: Rick Mayes,Catherine Bagwell,Jennifer L. Erkulwater

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674031630

Category: Medical

Page: 352

View: 5307

Rick Mayes and colleagues argue that a unique alignment of social and economic trends and incentives converged in the early 1990s with greater scientific knowledge to make ADHD the most prevalent pediatric mental disorder. This book is unique in that it integrates analyses of the clinical, political, historical, educational, social, economic, and legal aspects of ADHD and stimulant pharmacotherapy.

Happy Pills in America

From Miltown to Prozac

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Author: David Herzberg

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421400995

Category: Medical

Page: 296

View: 9989

Valium. Paxil. Prozac. Prescribed by the millions each year, these medications have been hailed as wonder drugs and vilified as numbing and addictive crutches. Where did this "blockbuster drug" phenomenon come from? What factors led to the mass acceptance of tranquilizers and antidepressants? And how has their widespread use affected American culture? David Herzberg addresses these questions by tracing the rise of psychiatric medicines, from Miltown in the 1950s to Valium in the 1970s to Prozac in the 1990s. The result is more than a story of doctors and patients. From bare-knuckled marketing campaigns to political activism by feminists and antidrug warriors, the fate of psychopharmacology has been intimately wrapped up in the broader currents of modern American history. Beginning with the emergence of a medical marketplace for psychoactive drugs in the postwar consumer culture, Herzberg traces how "happy pills" became embroiled in Cold War gender battles and the explosive politics of the "war against drugs"—and how feminists brought the two issues together in a dramatic campaign against Valium addiction in the 1970s. A final look at antidepressants shows that even the Prozac phenomenon owed as much to commerce and culture as to scientific wizardry. With a barrage of "ask your doctor about" advertisements competing for attention with shocking news of drug company malfeasance, Happy Pills is an invaluable look at how the commercialization of medicine has transformed American culture since the end of World War II. -- Lizabeth Cohen, author of A Consumers' Republic: The Politics of Mass Consumption in Postwar America

The Madness of Fear

A History of Catatonia

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Author: Edward Shorter,Max Fink

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190881216

Category: Medical

Page: 224

View: 4267

What are the real disease entities in psychiatry? This is a question that has bedeviled the study of the mind for more than a century yet it is low on the research agenda of psychiatry. Basic science issues such as neuroimaging, neurochemistry, and genetics carry the day instead. There is nothing wrong with basic science research, but before studying the role of brain circuits or cerebral chemistry, shouldn't we be able to specify how the various diseases present clinically? Catatonia is a human behavioral syndrome that for almost a century was buried in the poorly designated psychiatric concept of schizophrenia. Its symptoms are well-know, and some of them are serious. Catatonic patients may die as their temperatures accelerate; they become dehydrated because they refuse to drink; they risk inanition because they refuse to eat or move. Autistic children with catatonia may hit themselves repeatedly in the head. We don't really know what catatonia is, in the sense that we know what pneumonia is. But we can identify it, and it is eminently treatable. Clinicians can make these patients better on a reliable basis. There are few other disease entities in psychiatry of which this is true. So why has there been so little psychiatric interest in catatonia? Why is it simply not on the radar of most clinicians? Catatonia actually occurs in a number of other medical illnesses as well, but it is certainly not on the radar of most internists or emergency physicians. In The Madness of Fear, Drs. Shorter and Fink seek to understand why this "vast field of ignorance" exists. In the history of catatonia, they see a remarkable story about how medicine flounders, and then seems to find its way. And it may help doctors, and the public, to recognize catatonia as one of the core illnesses in psychiatry.

Logotherapy and Existential Analysis

Proceedings of the Viktor Frankl Institute Vienna

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Author: Alexander Batthyány

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319294245

Category: Psychology

Page: 469

View: 6587

This landmark volume introduces the new series of proceedings from the Viktor Frankl Institute, dedicated to preserving the past, disseminating the present, and anticipating the future of Franklian existential psychology and psychotherapy, i.e. logotherapy and existentialanalysis . Wide-ranging contents keep readers abreast of current ideas, findings, and developments in the field while also presenting rarely-seen selections from Frankl’s work. Established contributors report on new applications of existential therapies in specific (OCD, cancer, end-of-life issues) and universal (the search for meaning) contexts as well as intriguing possibilities for opening up dialogue with other schools of psychology. And this initial offering establishes the tenor of the series by presenting varied materials across the field, including: Archival and unpublished articles and lectures by Frankl. Peer-reviewed studies on logotherapy process, measures, and research. New case studies using logotherapy and existential analysis in diverse settings. Papers advocating cross-disciplinary collaboration. Philosophical applications of existential psychology. Critical reviews of logotherapy-related books. Volume 1 of Logotherapy and Existential Analysis will attract a wide audience, including psychologists (clinical, social, personality, positive), psychotherapists of different schools, psychiatrists in private practice, and researchers in these fields. Practitioners in counseling, pastoral psychology, coaching, and medical care will also welcome this new source of ideas and inspiration.

Drug Abuse Prevention

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Author: Richard Wilson,Cheryl Kolander

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers

ISBN: 1449666698

Category: Psychology

Page: 332

View: 6610

Using an evidence-based approach, Drug Abuse Prevention: A School and Community Partnership, Third Edition teaches students and practitioners the important concepts and skills needed to design effective drug prevention programs. Written to cover more than just the facts about drugs, this text provides a background of drug use and abuse, presents the principles and skills of prevention, with particular focus on adolescents and school settings, and reinforces the importance of schools forming community partnerships with key institutions and the application of policy tools to enhance the impact of education alone. Important Notice: The digital edition of this book is missing some of the images or content found in the physical edition.

Doctors of Deception

What They Don't Want You to Know about Shock Treatment

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Author: Linda Andre

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 9780813546520

Category: Medical

Page: 376

View: 3785

Mechanisms and standards exist to safeguard the health and welfare of the patient, but for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)—used to treat depression and other mental illnesses—such approval methods have failed. Prescribed to thousands over the years, public relations as opposed to medical trials have paved the way for this popular yet dangerous and controversial treatment option. Doctors of Deception is a revealing history of ECT (or shock therapy) in the United States, told here for the first time. Through the examination of court records, medical data, FDA reports, industry claims, her own experience as a patient of shock therapy, and the stories of others, Andre exposes tactics used by the industry to promote ECT as a responsible treatment when all the scientific evidence suggested otherwise. As early as the 1940s, scientific literature began reporting incidences of human and animal brain damage resulting from ECT. Despite practitioner modifications, deleterious effects on memory and cognition persisted. Rather than discontinue use of ECT, the $5-billion-per-year shock industry crafted a public relations campaign to improve ECT’s image. During the 1970s and 1980s, psychiatry’s PR efforts misled the government, the public, and the media into believing that ECT had made a comeback and was safe. Andre carefully intertwines stories of ECT survivors and activists with legal, ethical, and scientific arguments to address issues of patient rights and psychiatric treatment. Echoing current debates about the use of psychopharmaceutical interventions shown to have debilitating side-effects, she candidly presents ECT as a problematic therapy demanding greater scrutiny, tighter control, and full disclosure about its long-term cognitive effects.

From the mind into the body

the cultural origins of psychosomatic symptoms

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Author: Edward Shorter

Publisher: Free Pr

ISBN: N.A

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 268

View: 4051

Examines the relationship between social identity and the varieties of psychosomatic illness, tracing the interplay of cultural and biological factors in psychosomatic distress and showing why some individuals are more predisposed than others to develop chronic illness.

Anatomy of an Epidemic

Magic Bullets, Psychiatric Drugs, and the Astonishing Rise of Mental Illness in America

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Author: Robert Whitaker

Publisher: Broadway Books

ISBN: 9780307452436

Category: Psychology

Page: 416

View: 7211

Now with bonus material, including a new foreword and afterword with updated research In this astonishing and startling book, award-winning science and history writer Robert Whitaker investigates a medical mystery: Why has the number of disabled mentally ill in the United States tripled over the past two decades? Every day, 1,100 adults and children are added to the government disability rolls because they have become newly disabled by mental illness, with this epidemic spreading most rapidly among our nation’s children. What is going on? Anatomy of an Epidemic challenges readers to think through that question themselves. First, Whitaker investigates what is known today about the biological causes of mental disorders. Do psychiatric medications fix “chemical imbalances” in the brain, or do they, in fact, create them? Researchers spent decades studying that question, and by the late 1980s, they had their answer. Readers will be startled—and dismayed—to discover what was reported in the scientific journals. Then comes the scientific query at the heart of this book: During the past fifty years, when investigators looked at how psychiatric drugs affected long-term outcomes, what did they find? Did they discover that the drugs help people stay well? Function better? Enjoy good physical health? Or did they find that these medications, for some paradoxical reason, increase the likelihood that people will become chronically ill, less able to function well, more prone to physical illness? This is the first book to look at the merits of psychiatric medications through the prism of long-term results. Are long-term recovery rates higher for medicated or unmedicated schizophrenia patients? Does taking an antidepressant decrease or increase the risk that a depressed person will become disabled by the disorder? Do bipolar patients fare better today than they did forty years ago, or much worse? When the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) studied the long-term outcomes of children with ADHD, did they determine that stimulants provide any benefit? By the end of this review of the outcomes literature, readers are certain to have a haunting question of their own: Why have the results from these long-term studies—all of which point to the same startling conclusion—been kept from the public? In this compelling history, Whitaker also tells the personal stories of children and adults swept up in this epidemic. Finally, he reports on innovative programs of psychiatric care in Europe and the United States that are producing good long-term outcomes. Our nation has been hit by an epidemic of disabling mental illness, and yet, as Anatomy of an Epidemic reveals, the medical blueprints for curbing that epidemic have already been drawn up.

Psychotropic Drugs

Fast Facts

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Author: Jerrold S. Maxmen,Sidney H. Kennedy,Roger S. McIntyre

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 9780393705201

Category: Medical

Page: 260

View: 6840

An all-in-one drug resource guide for mental health professionals. Now in its fourth edition, Psychotropic Drugs: Fast Facts continues to provide valuable information in a clear and accessible format. Organized by major drug classes, the book presents comprehensive data on dosage, side effects, drug-drug interactions, withdrawal, and more -- everything clinicians need to know to properly manage pharmacological treatment for their clients.

Mad in America

Bad Science, Bad Medicine, and the Enduring Mistreatment of the Mentally Ill

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Author: Robert Whitaker

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0786723793

Category: Psychology

Page: 368

View: 5410

Schizophrenics in the United States currently fare worse than patients in the world's poorest countries. In Mad in America, medical journalist Robert Whitaker argues that modern treatments for the severely mentally ill are just old medicine in new bottles, and that we as a society are deeply deluded about their efficacy. The widespread use of lobotomies in the 1920s and 1930s gave way in the 1950s to electroshock and a wave of new drugs. In what is perhaps Whitaker's most damning revelation, Mad in America examines how drug companies in the 1980s and 1990s skewed their studies to prove that new antipsychotic drugs were more effective than the old, while keeping patients in the dark about dangerous side effects. A haunting, deeply compassionate book—now revised with a new introduction—Mad in America raises important questions about our obligations to the mad, the meaning of “insanity,” and what we value most about the human mind.

Catholic Guide to Depression

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Author: Aaron D. Kheriaty

Publisher: Sophia Institute Press

ISBN: 1622821130

Category: Religion

Page: N.A

View: 3768

How the saints, the sacraments, and psychiatry can help you break depression's grip and find happiness again Countless Christians—including scores of saints—have suffered profound, pervasive sorrow that modern psychiatrists call “depression.” Then, as now, great faith and even fervent spiritual practices have generally failed to ease this wearying desolation of soul. In these pages, Catholic psychiatrist Aaron Kheriaty reviews the effective ways that have recently been devised to deal with this grave and sometimes deadly affliction — ways that are not only consistent with the teachings of the Church, but even rooted in many of those teachings. Extensive clinical experience treating patients with depression has shown Dr. Kheriaty that the confessional can’t cure neuroses, nor can the couch forgive sin. Healing comes only when we integrate the legitimate discoveries of modern psychology and pharmacology with spiritual direction and the Sacraments, giving particular attention to the wisdom of the Church Fathers and the saints. Here, with the expert help of Dr. Kheriaty, you’ll learn how to distinguish depression from similarlooking but fundamentally different mental states such as guilt, sloth, the darkness of sin, and the sublime desolation called “dark night of the soul” that is, in fact, a privileged spiritual trial sent to good souls as a special gift from God. You’ll come to know how to identify the various types of depression and come to understand the interplay of their often manifold causes, biological, psychological, behavioral, cultural, and, yes, moral. Then you’ll learn about exciting breakthroughs in pharmacological and other medical treatments, the benefits and limitations of psychotherapy, the critical place that spiritual direction must have in your healing, and the vital role that hope — Christian hope — can play in driving out depression.

The Protest Psychosis

How Schizophrenia Became a Black Disease

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Author: Jonathan M. Metzl

Publisher: Beacon Press

ISBN: 0807085936

Category: Psychology

Page: 272

View: 1239

A powerful account of how cultural anxieties about race shaped American notions of mental illness The civil rights era is largely remembered as a time of sit-ins, boycotts, and riots. But a very different civil rights history evolved at the Ionia State Hospital for the Criminally Insane in Ionia, Michigan. In The Protest Psychosis, psychiatrist and cultural critic Jonathan Metzl tells the shocking story of how schizophrenia became the diagnostic term overwhelmingly applied to African American protesters at Ionia—for political reasons as well as clinical ones. Expertly sifting through a vast array of cultural documents, Metzl shows how associations between schizophrenia and blackness emerged during the tumultuous decades of the 1960s and 1970s—and he provides a cautionary tale of how anxieties about race continue to impact doctor-patient interactions in our seemingly postracial America. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Listening to Prozac

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Author: Peter D. Kramer

Publisher: Sage

ISBN: N.A

Category: Fluoxetine

Page: 409

View: 6680

The therapeutic encounter is at the core of counselling and psychotherapy training and practice, regardless of therapeutic modality. This book introduces a cross-modality approach to the client-therapist encounter, drawing from humanistic, psychoanalytic, systemic, and integrative approaches. Chapters introduce a range of client themes - the refusal to join in, the battle for control, the emotionally unavailable etc - and shows how these are enacted in the relationship. The authors invite you, as therapist, to interact creatively with the client, engaging directly in the drama. In this way, they provide a coherent framework within which to understand both the therapeutic relationship and the principles of their approach. This book is highly recommended for any counselling and psychotherapy trainee, regardless of modality. It is a must-read, with each chapter directly addressing essential teaching and trainee concerns. David Bott is the Director of Studies of Counselling and Psychotherapy at the University of Brighton and a UKCP registered Systemic Psychotherapist. Pam Howard is Course Leader of the MA Psychotherapeutic Counselling at the University of Brighton and a UKCP registered Psychoanalytic Psychotherapist