Basic Biogeography

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Author: N V Pears

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317885260

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 7620

First published in 1985. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Biogeography

An Ecological and Evolutionary Approach

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Author: C. Barry Cox,Peter D. Moore,Richard Ladle

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111896859X

Category: Science

Page: 500

View: 5889

Through eight successful editions, and over nearly 40 years, Biogeography: An Ecological and Evolutionary Approach has provided a thorough and comprehensive exploration of the varied scientific disciplines and research that are essential to understanding the subject. The text has been praised for its solid background in historical biogeography and basic biology, that is enhanced and illuminated by discussions of current research. This new edition incorporates the exciting changes of the recent years, and presents a thoughtful exploration of the research and controversies that have transformed our understanding of the biogeography of the world. It also clearly identifies the three quite different arenas of biogeographical research: continental biogeography, island biogeography and marine biogeography. It is the only current textbook with full coverage of marine biogeography. It reveals how the patterns of life that we see today have been created by the two great Engines of the Planet - the Geological Engine, plate tectonics, which alters the conditions of life on the planet, and the Biological Engine, evolution, which responds to these changes by creating new forms and patterns of life.

Fundamentals of Biogeography

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Author: Richard J. Huggett

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415323468

Category: Social Science

Page: 439

View: 3185

Fundamentals of Biogeography presents an accessible, engaging and comprehensive introduction to biogeography, explaining the ecology, geography, history and conservation of animals and plants. Starting with an outline of how species arise, disperse, diversify and become extinct, the book examines: how environmental factors (climate, substrate, topography, and disturbance) influence animals and plants; investigates how populations grow, interact and survive; how communities form and change; and explores the connections between biogeography and conservation. The second edition has been extensively revised and expanded throughout to cover new topics and revisit themes from the first edition in more depth. Illustrated throughout with informative diagrams and attractive photos and including guides to further reading, chapter summaries and an extensive glossary of key terms, Fundamentals of Biogeography clearly explains key concepts in the history, geography and ecology of life systems. In doing so, it tackles some of the most topical and controversial environmental and ethical concerns including species over-exploitation, the impacts of global warming, habitat fragmentation, biodiversity loss and ecosystem restoration.

Conservation Biogeography

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Author: Richard Ladle,Robert J. Whittaker

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444398113

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 2893

The Earth’s ecosystems are in the midst of an unprecedented period of change as a result of human action. Many habitats have been completely destroyed or divided into tiny fragments, others have been transformed through the introduction of new species, or the extinction of native plants and animals, while anthropogenic climate change now threatens to completely redraw the geographic map of life on this planet. The urgent need to understand and prescribe solutions to this complicated and interlinked set of pressing conservation issues has lead to the transformation of the venerable academic discipline of biogeography – the study of the geographic distribution of animals and plants. The newly emerged sub-discipline of conservation biogeography uses the conceptual tools and methods of biogeography to address real world conservation problems and to provide predictions about the fate of key species and ecosystems over the next century. This book provides the first comprehensive review of the field in a series of closely interlinked chapters addressing the central issues within this exciting and important subject. View www.wiley.com/go/ladle/biogeography yo access the figures from the book.

Fundamentals of Geomorphology

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Author: Richard John Huggett

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317378385

Category: Science

Page: 544

View: 1200

The new fourth edition of Fundamentals of Geomorphology continues to provide a comprehensive introduction to the subject by discussing the latest developments in the field, as well as covering the basics of Earth surface forms and processes. The revised edition has an improved logically cohesive structure, added recent material on Quaternary environments and landscapes, landscape evolution and tectonics, as well as updated information in fast-changing areas such as the application of dating techniques, digital terrain modelling, historical contingency, preglacial landforms, neocatastrophism, and biogeomorphology. The book begins with a consideration of the nature of geomorphology, process and form, history, and geomorphic systems, and moves on to discuss: Endogenic processes: structural landforms associated with plate tectonics and those associated with volcanoes, impact craters, and folds, faults, and joints. Exogenic processes: landforms resulting from, or influenced by, the exogenic agencies of weathering, running water, flowing ice and meltwater, ground ice and frost, the wind, and the sea; landforms developed on limestone; and long-term geomorphology, a discussion of ancient landforms, including palaeosurfaces, stagnant landscape features, and evolutionary aspects of landscape change. Featuring over 400 illustrations, diagrams, and tables, Fundamentals of Geomorphology provides a stimulating and innovative perspective on the key topics and debates within the field of geomorphology. Written in an accessible and lively manner, and providing guides to further reading, chapter summaries, and an extensive glossary of key terms, this is an indispensable undergraduate level textbook for students of physical geography.

The Theory of Island Biogeography

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Author: Robert H. MacArthur,Edward O. Wilson

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400881374

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 2196

Biogeography was stuck in a "natural history phase" dominated by the collection of data, the young Princeton biologists Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson argued in 1967. In this book, the authors developed a general theory to explain the facts of island biogeography. The theory builds on the first principles of population ecology and genetics to explain how distance and area combine to regulate the balance between immigration and extinction in island populations. The authors then test the theory against data. The Theory of Island Biogeography was never intended as the last word on the subject. Instead, MacArthur and Wilson sought to stimulate new forms of theoretical and empirical studies, which will lead in turn to a stronger general theory. Even a third of a century since its publication, the book continues to serve that purpose well. From popular books like David Quammen's Song of the Dodo to arguments in the professional literature, The Theory of Island Biogeography remains at the center of discussions about the geographic distribution of species. In a new preface, Edward O. Wilson reviews the origins and consequences of this classic book.

Biogeography 5e

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Author: Mark V Lomolino

Publisher: Sinauer Associates

ISBN: 9781605354729

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 3870

Evolutionary Biogeography

An Integrative Approach with Case Studies

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Author: Juan J. Morrone

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231143788

Category: Science

Page: 301

View: 7012

"Rather than favoring only one approach, Juan J. Morrone proposes a comprehensive treatment of the developments and theories of evolutionary biogeography. Evolutionary biogeography uses distributional, phylogenetic, molecular, and fossil data to assess the historical changes that have produced current biotic patterns. Panbiogeography, parsimony analysis of endemicity, cladistic biogeography, and phylogeography are the four recent and most common approaches. Many conceive of these methods as representing different "schools," but Morrone shows how each addresses different questions in the various steps of an evolutionary biogeographical analysis. Panbiogeography and parsimony analysis of endemicity are useful for identifying biotic components or areas of endemism. Cladistic biogeography uses phylogenetic data to determine the relationships between these biotic components. Further information on fossils, phylogeographic patterns, and molecular clocks can be incorporated to identify different cenocrons. Finally, available geological knowledge can help construct a geobiotic scenario that may explain how analyzed areas were put into contact and how the biotic components and cenocrons inhabiting them evolved. Morrone compares these methods and employs case studies to make it clear which is best for the question at hand. Set problems, discussion sections, and glossaries further enhance classroom use."--Publisher's description.

Conservation Biogeography

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Author: Richard Ladle,Robert J. Whittaker

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444398113

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 7060

The Earth’s ecosystems are in the midst of an unprecedented period of change as a result of human action. Many habitats have been completely destroyed or divided into tiny fragments, others have been transformed through the introduction of new species, or the extinction of native plants and animals, while anthropogenic climate change now threatens to completely redraw the geographic map of life on this planet. The urgent need to understand and prescribe solutions to this complicated and interlinked set of pressing conservation issues has lead to the transformation of the venerable academic discipline of biogeography – the study of the geographic distribution of animals and plants. The newly emerged sub-discipline of conservation biogeography uses the conceptual tools and methods of biogeography to address real world conservation problems and to provide predictions about the fate of key species and ecosystems over the next century. This book provides the first comprehensive review of the field in a series of closely interlinked chapters addressing the central issues within this exciting and important subject. View www.wiley.com/go/ladle/biogeography yo access the figures from the book.

The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography (MPB-32)

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Author: Stephen P. Hubbell

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400837526

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 4287

Despite its supreme importance and the threat of its global crash, biodiversity remains poorly understood both empirically and theoretically. This ambitious book presents a new, general neutral theory to explain the origin, maintenance, and loss of biodiversity in a biogeographic context. Until now biogeography (the study of the geographic distribution of species) and biodiversity (the study of species richness and relative species abundance) have had largely disjunct intellectual histories. In this book, Stephen Hubbell develops a formal mathematical theory that unifies these two fields. When a speciation process is incorporated into Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson's now classical theory of island biogeography, the generalized theory predicts the existence of a universal, dimensionless biodiversity number. In the theory, this fundamental biodiversity number, together with the migration or dispersal rate, completely determines the steady-state distribution of species richness and relative species abundance on local to large geographic spatial scales and short-term to evolutionary time scales. Although neutral, Hubbell's theory is nevertheless able to generate many nonobvious, testable, and remarkably accurate quantitative predictions about biodiversity and biogeography. In many ways Hubbell's theory is the ecological analog to the neutral theory of genetic drift in genetics. The unified neutral theory of biogeography and biodiversity should stimulate research in new theoretical and empirical directions by ecologists, evolutionary biologists, and biogeographers.

The Speciation and Biogeography of Birds

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Author: Ian Newton

Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing

ISBN: 9780125173759

Category: Nature

Page: 668

View: 7178

Publisher Description (unedited publisher data) Counter This book should be of value to anyone interested in bird evolution and taxonomy, biogeography, distributional history, dispersal and migration patterns. It provides an up-to-date synthesis of current knowledge on species formation, and the factors influencing current distribution patterns. It draws heavily on new information on Earth history, including past glacial and other climatic changes, on new developments in molecular biology and palaeontology, and on recent studies of bird distribution and migration patterns, to produce a coherent account of the factors that have influenced bird species diversity and distribution patterns worldwide. * The first book to deal comprehensively with bird speciation and biogeography * Up-to-date synthesis of new information * Clearly written * No previous book covers the same ground * Many maps and diagrams * Makes difficult and widely scattered information accessible and easily understood * A sound base for future research * Takes full account of recent developments in molecular biology.

Historical Biogeography

An Introduction

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Author: Jorge CRISCI,Liliana Katinas,Paula Posadas,Jorge Víctor Crisci

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674030044

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 1622

Though biogeography may be simply defined--the study of the geographic distributions of organisms--the subject itself is extraordinarily complex, involving a range of scientific disciplines and a bewildering diversity of approaches. For convenience, biogeographers have recognized two research traditions: ecological biogeography and historical biogeography. This book makes sense of the profound revolution that historical biogeography has undergone in the last two decades, and of the resulting confusion over its foundations, basic concepts, methods, and relationships to other disciplines of comparative biology. Using case studies, the authors explain and illustrate the fundamentals and the most frequently used methods of this discipline. They show the reader how to tell when a historical biogeographic approach is called for, how to decide what kind of data to collect, how to choose the best method for the problem at hand, how to perform the necessary calculations, how to choose and apply a computer program, and how to interpret results.

21st Century Geography

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Author: Joseph P. Stoltman

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 141297464X

Category: Science

Page: 883

View: 4382

This is a theoretical and practical guide on how to undertake and navigate advanced research in the arts, humanities and social sciences.

The Theory of Island Biogeography Revisited

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Author: Jonathan B. Losos,Robert E. Ricklefs

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 140083192X

Category: Science

Page: 496

View: 3623

Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson's The Theory of Island Biogeography, first published by Princeton in 1967, is one of the most influential books on ecology and evolution to appear in the past half century. By developing a general mathematical theory to explain a crucial ecological problem--the regulation of species diversity in island populations--the book transformed the science of biogeography and ecology as a whole. In The Theory of Island Biogeography Revisited, some of today's most prominent biologists assess the continuing impact of MacArthur and Wilson's book four decades after its publication. Following an opening chapter in which Wilson reflects on island biogeography in the 1960s, fifteen chapters evaluate and demonstrate how the field has extended and confirmed--as well as challenged and modified--MacArthur and Wilson's original ideas. Providing a broad picture of the fundamental ways in which the science of island biogeography has been shaped by MacArthur and Wilson's landmark work, The Theory of Island Biogeography Revisited also points the way toward exciting future research.

The Monkey's Voyage

How Improbable Journeys Shaped the History of Life

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Author: Alan de Queiroz

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465069762

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 4565

How did species wind up where they are today? Scientists have long conjectured that plants and animals dispersed throughout the world by drifting on large landmasses as they broke up, but in The Monkey's Voyage, biologist Alan de Queiroz offers a radical new theory that displaces this passive view. He describes how species as diverse as monkeys, baobab trees, and burrowing lizards made incredible long-distance ocean crossings: pregnant animals and wind-blown plants rode rafts and icebergs and even stowed away on the legs of sea-going birds to create the map of life we see today. In the tradition of John McPhee's Basin and Range and David Quammen's The Song of the Dodo, The Monkey's Voyage is a beautifully told narrative of a profound investigation into the importance of contingency in history and the nature of scientific discovery.

Foundations of Systematics and Biogeography

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Author: David M. Williams,Malte C. Ebach

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387727302

Category: Medical

Page: 310

View: 9621

Anyone interested in comparative biology or the history of science will find this myth-busting work genuinely fascinating. It draws attention to the seminal studies and important advances that have shaped systematic and biogeographic thinking. It traces concepts in homology and classification from the 19th century to the present through the provision of a unique anthology of scientific writings from Goethe, Agassiz, Owen, Naef, Zangerl and Nelson, among others.

Plants of Oceanic Islands

Evolution, Biogeography, and Conservation of the Flora of the Juan Fernández (Robinson Crusoe) Archipelago

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Author: Tod F. Stuessy,Eduardo Ruiz

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107180074

Category: Science

Page: 492

View: 4856

Bringing together results from over 30 years of research on the Juan Fernndez Archipelago off the coast of Chile, this book offers comprehensive coverage of the plants of these special islands. Despite its remote setting in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, the Juan Fernndez Archipelago is in many ways an ideal place to ask and attempt to answer basic questions regarding the evolution of vascular plants in an oceanic island environment. By building upon a firm taxonomic base for the flora, a new level of understanding regarding evolution, biogeography, and conservation of the plants is presented. This book is an extensive investigation of the origin and evolution of the flora of an oceanic archipelago, and it serves as a valuable resource for researchers and scholars of island biology as well as for conservation biologists worldwide.

Evolutionary Computation with Biogeography-based Optimization

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Author: Haiping Ma,Dan Simon

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119136512

Category: Computers

Page: 344

View: 3051

Evolutionary computation algorithms are employed to minimize functions with large number of variables. Biogeography-based optimization (BBO) is an optimization algorithm that is based on the science of biogeography, which researches the migration patterns of species. These migration paradigms provide the main logic behind BBO. Due to the cross-disciplinary nature of the optimization problems, there is a need to develop multiple approaches to tackle them and to study the theoretical reasoning behind their performance. This book explains the mathematical model of BBO algorithm and its variants created to cope with continuous domain problems (with and without constraints) and combinatorial problems.

Patterns of Life

Biogeography of a changing world

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Author: Howard Mielke

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401164991

Category: Science

Page: 370

View: 7974

Insight into universal nature provides an intellectual life? Why are so many plants and animals, especially delight and sense of freedom that no blows of fate and freshwater species, at risk of extinction? These are a few no evil can destroy. of the questions that have intrigued observers of nature Alexander von Humboldt, 1805 and the Earth. By studying the Earth's patterns of life, students of biogeography ultimately ponder some of the ... on that small spot, that little blue and white thing, most basic questions about life and the cosmos. is everything that means anything to you - all of history and music and poetry and art and death and birth and love, tears, joy, games, all of it on that little Historical roots of biogeography spot out there that you can cover with your thumb. The topic of biogeography has its roots in the work of And you realize from that perspective that you've Alexander von Humboldt, the recognized father of plant changed, that there's something new there, that the geography (Detwyler 1969, Browne 1983). From its relationship is no longer what it was.

Neotropical Biogeography

Regionalization and Evolution

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Author: Juan J. Morrone

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1315390647

Category: Nature

Page: 312

View: 7530

Neotropical Biogeography: Regionalization and Evolution presents the most comprehensive single-source treatment of the Neotropical region derived from evolutionary biogeographic studies. The book provides a biogeographic regionalization based on distributional patterns of plant and animal taxa, discusses biotic relationships drawn from track and cladistic biogeographic analyses, and identifies cenocrons (subsets of taxa within biotas identified by their common origin and evolutionary history). It includes maps, area cladograms and vegetation profiles. The aim of this reference is to provide a biogeographic regionalization that can be used by graduate students, researchers and other professionals concerned with understanding and describing distributional patterns of plants and animals in the Neotropical region. It covers the 53 biogeographic provinces of the Neotropical region that are classified into the Antillean, Brazilian and Chacoan subregions, and the Mexican and South American transition zones.