Aqueous Microwave Assisted Chemistry

Synthesis and Catalysis


Author: Vivek Polshettiwar,Rajender S. Varma

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 1849730385

Category: Science

Page: 228

View: 6632

The demands for green and sustainable synthetic methods in the fields of healthcare and fine chemicals, combined with the pressure to produce these substances expeditiously and in an environmentally benign fashion, pose significant challenges to the synthetic chemical community. Green chemistry can avoid pollution by utilizing techniques that are environmentally friendly by design and one of the best green techniques is the use of microwave (MW) assisted aqueous synthetic protocols. Fusing MW technique with water (as a benign reaction medium) can offer an extraordinary synergistic effect with greater potential than these two individual components in isolation. Selective microwave heating can be exploited to develop a high yield protocol and the use of water expedites the MW-protocol with more energy efficiency. This book provides an overview of the various processes developed using aqueous microwave chemistry and is written for chemists, chemical engineers and researchers in the early stages who want to develop sustainable and green processes. Written by well known microwave experts, the book is a comprehensive examination of the field and is the first book that deals strictly with aqueous microwave chemistry and represents a significant effort towards green chemistry. It covers all the microwave-assisted aqueous reactions in depth, including heterocycle synthesis, metal catalysis, enzyme catalysis, polymer synthesis, nanomaterials synthesis and nano-catalysis. Each chapter contains representative experimental procedures, helping the reader quickly replicate some of the experiments to gain hands-on experience.

Microwaves in Organic and Medicinal Chemistry


Author: C. Oliver Kappe,Alexander Stadler,Doris Dallinger

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527647848

Category: Science

Page: 683

View: 4429

Tailored to the needs of medicinal and natural products chemists, the second edition of this unique handbook brings the contents up to speed, almost doubling the amount of chemical information with an additional volume. As in the predecessor, a short introductory section covers the theoretical background and evaluates currently available instrumentation and equipment. The main part of the book then goes on to systematically survey the complete range of published microwave-assisted synthesis methods from their beginnings in the 1990s to mid-2011, drawing on data from more than 5,000 reports and publications. Throughout, the focus is on those reactions, reagents and reaction conditions that work, and that are the most relevant for medicinal and natural products chemistry. A much expanded section is devoted to combinatorial, highthroughput and flow chemistry methods.

Microwave Chemical and Materials Processing

A Tutorial


Author: Satoshi Horikoshi,Robert F. Schiffmann,Jun Fukushima,Nick Serpone

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811064660

Category: Science

Page: 393

View: 3504

The principal aim of this book is to introduce chemists through a tutorial approach to the use of microwaves by examining several experiments of microwave chemistry and materials processing. It will subsequently enable chemists to fashion their own experiments in microwave chemistry or materials processing. Microwave heating has become a popular methodology in introducing thermal energy in chemical reactions and material processing in laboratory-scale experiments. Several research cases where microwave heating has been used in a wide range of fields have been reported, including organic synthesis, polymers, nanomaterials, biomaterials, and ceramic sintering, among others. In most cases, microwave equipment is used as a simple heat source. Therefore the principal benefits of microwave radiation have seldom been taken advantage of. One reason is the necessity to understand the nature of electromagnetism, microwave engineering, and thermodynamics. However, it is difficult for a chemist to appreciate these in a short time, so they act as barriers for the chemist who might take an interest in the use of microwave radiation. This book helps to overcome these barriers by using figures and diagrams instead of equations as much as possible.

Green Reactions Set



Author: Royal Society Of Chemistry

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781782620808

Category: Science

Page: 1444

View: 5945

This set of books demonstrates how the philosophy of green chemistry has reduced the use and generation of hazardous substances in chemical reactions and engineering.

Microwave Assisted Proteomics


Author: Jennie R. Lill

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 085404194X

Category: Science

Page: 125

View: 1758

An introduction to the rapidly evolving field of microwave-assisted bio-analytical methods with an emphasis on sample preparation for proteomic analyses.

Microwave-Assisted Sample Preparation for Trace Element Determination


Author: Erico Marlon Moraes Flores

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 0444594442

Category: Science

Page: 416

View: 4833

Microwave-Assisted Sample Preparation for Trace Element Analysis describes the principles, equipment, and applications involved in sample preparation with microwaves for trace element analysis. The book covers well-established applications as well as new trends in this field. Hot topics such as sample preparation for speciation, metabolomics, and halogen determination, as well as the alternatives of sample preparation for special samples (for example, carbon nanotubes, polymers, petroleum products), are also discussed. The use of microwaves in sample preparation has increased in recent decades. Several applications of microwaves for sample preparation can be found in the literature for practically all types of sample matrices, especially for the determination of trace elements by atomic spectrometric techniques, safely and cleanly reducing the time involved in this step. Microwave-assisted sample preparation is not only a tool for research but also for routine analysis laboratories; the state-of-the-art in sample preparation in trace element analysis. This book is the only resource for chemists specifically focused on this topic. The first book to describe the principles, equipment, and applications in microwave-assisted sample preparation Written by experts in the field who provide a comprehensive overview of the important concepts Introduces new alternatives and trends in microwave-assisted techniques

Laboratory Experiments Using Microwave Heating


Author: Nicholas E. Leadbeater,Cynthia B. McGowan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439856095

Category: Science

Page: 232

View: 3989

Allowing many chemical reactions to be completed within minutes, microwave heating has revolutionized preparative chemistry. As a result, this technology has been widely adopted in both academic and industrial laboratories. Integrating microwave-assisted chemistry into undergraduate laboratory courses enables students to perform a broader range of reactions in the allotted lab period. As a result, they can be introduced to chemistry that would otherwise have been inaccessible due to time constraints (for example, the need for an overnight reflux). Laboratory Experiments Using Microwave Heating provides 22 experiments encompassing organic, inorganic, and analytical chemistry performed using microwave heating as a tool, making them fast and easy to accomplish in a laboratory period. Utilizing the time-saving experiments described in this book also permits students to repeat experiments if necessary or attempt additional self-designed experiments during the lab course. A number of the chemical transformations use water as a solvent in lieu of classical organic solvents. This contributes to greener, more sustainable teaching strategies for faculty and students, while maintaining high reaction yields. All the experiments have been tested and verified in laboratory classes, and many were even developed by students. Each chapter includes an introduction to the experiment and two protocols—one for use with a smaller monomode microwave unit employing a single reaction vessel and one for use with a larger multimode microwave unit employing a carousel of reaction vessels.

Environmental Geochemistry in Tropical and Subtropical Environments


Author: Luiz Drude de Lacerda,Ricardo Erthal Santelli,Egbert K. Duursma,Jorge Joao Abrao

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 366207060X

Category: Nature

Page: 385

View: 6824

This book incorporates twenty contributions on diverse aspects of the environmental geochemistry in tropical and sub-tropical environments, drawing together extensive original research not readily available elsewhere. Coverage includes intercontinental comparisons drawn on paleoclimatology, environmental impacts of mining and geochemistry of continetal shelf sediments.

Microwaves in Organic Synthesis


Author: Antonio de la Hoz,André Loupy

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527651330

Category: Science

Page: 1303

View: 6365

The third edition of the bestselling two-volume reference covers everything you need to know about microwave technology for synthesis - from the best equipment to nonthermal effects, from solid-support reactions to catalysis. Completely revised and updated with half of the authors completely new to the project, this comprehensive work is clearly divided into two parts on the fundamentals of microwave irradiation, and application of microwaves and synergies with other enabling techniques. Also new to this edition are chapters on on-line monitoring, flow chemistry, combination with ultrasounds and natural products, including multicomponent reactions. An indispensable source for organic, catalytic, physical, and medicinal chemists.

Spectrochemical Analysis by Atomic Absorption and Emission


Author: Lauri H. J. Lajunen,P. Perämäki,Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain)

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 9780854046249

Category: Science

Page: 342

View: 6677

Revised and fully updated, the book continues to be highly practical and wide in scope and contains illustrations which aid understanding.

Enhancing Extraction Processes in the Food Industry


Author: Nikolai Lebovka,Eugene Vorobiev,Farid Chemat

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439845956

Category: Science

Page: 570

View: 716

Extraction is an important operation in food engineering, enabling the recovery of valuable soluble components from raw materials. With increasing energy costs and environmental concerns, industry specialists are looking for improved techniques requiring less solvents and energy consumption. Enhancing Extraction Processes in the Food Industry is a comprehensive resource providing clear descriptions of the latest extraction methods and instruments used in food laboratories. The book begins with an overview of solvent extraction technology. It examines pulsed electric fields and their effect on food engineering, and the potential and limitations of microwave-assisted extraction. It explores diffusion processes and reviews what is known about electrical discharge processes in the extraction of biocompounds. Next, the book summarizes current knowledge on conventional and innovative techniques for the intensification of extractions from food and natural products, focusing on environmental impacts. It reviews recent developments in supercritical CO2 extraction of food and food products, describes the pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) process, and examines future trends for PHWE. The book also examines essential oil extraction, and the tools and techniques of high pressure-assisted extraction. The authors demonstrate its application using litchi and longan fruits as examples. The final chapters focus on extrusion-assisted extraction, gas-assisted mechanical expression, mechanochemically assisted extraction, reverse micellar extraction, and aqueous two-phase extraction. The book concludes with a chapter on the treatment of soybeans through enzyme-assisted aqueous processing, examining the economics involved as well as the development of the process. A solid review of modern approaches that enhance extraction processes, this volume is destined to pave the way for future research and development in the field.

Chemische Transportreaktionen


Author: Michael Binnewies,Robert Glaum,Marcus Schmidt,Peer Schmidt

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110248964

Category: Science

Page: 653

View: 4363

Unter dem Begriff Chemische Transportreaktionen fasst man eine Vielzahl von Reaktionen mit einem gemeinsamen Merkmal zusammen: Eine feste oder flA1/4ssige Komponente wird in Gegenwart eines gasfArmigen Reaktionspartners, des Transportmittels, verflA1/4chtigt und scheidet sich an anderer Stelle meist in Form gut ausgebildeter Kristalle wieder ab. Die Abscheidung kann dann erfolgen, wenn am Ort der Kristallisation andere AuAere Bedingungen herrschen als am Ort der VerflA1/4chtigung, in der Regel eine andere Temperatur. HAufig ist der Chemische Transport mit einem Reinigungseffekt verbunden. Wir haben es also mit einem Verfahren zur Herstellung reiner und gut kristallisierter Feststoffe zu tun. Insbesondere die Herstellung von Einkristallen stellt einen besonderen Wert dar, denn sie ermAglicht unter anderem die Bestimmung der Kristallstruktur mit Hilfe von RAntgenbeugungsverfahren. Aoeber diese Aspekte der reinen Grundlagenforschung hinaus haben Chemische Transportreaktionen auch eine praktische Bedeutung erlangt: Sie bilden die Grundlage der Funktionsweise von Halogenlampen. Auch ein groAtechnisches Verfahren beruht auf einer Chemischen Transportreaktion, das MOND-LANGER-Verfahren zur Herstellung von hochreinem Nickel.

Alternate Energy Processes in Chemical Synthesis

Microwave, Ultrasonic and Photo Activation


Author: V. K. Ahluwalia,Ranbir S. Varma

Publisher: Alpha Science International, Limited

ISBN: 9781842654347

Category: Science

Page: 228

View: 7265

Most of the chemical manufacturing industries use electricity generated from coal for heating puropses. Use of coal generates oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur which are responsible for Environmental Pollution. In view of this, attempts have been made to use alternate energy processes. This book deals with the use of microwaves, sonication and photo activation as alternate energy sources. Besides these energy processes, some reactions can also be carried out just by mixing of the reactants in a pestle-mortar or by just heating at low temperatures (40-70 degrees C). These alternate energy processes will go a long way in minimizing the pollution of the environment.

Handbook of Chemical and Biological Plant Analytical Methods, 3 Volume Set


Author: Shilin Chen,Andrew Marston,Hermann Stuppner

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118874986

Category: Medical

Page: 1176

View: 9319

Plants and plant-derived compounds and drugs are becoming moreand more popular with increasing numbers of scientists researchingplant analysis. The quality control of herbal drugs is alsobecoming essential to avoid severe health problems, and in thefuture many more new drugs will be developed from plantsources. This three-volume Handbook, featuring 47 detailed review articles,is unique as it deals with chemical and biological methodologiesfor plant analysis. It presents the most important and mostaccurate methods which are available for plant analysis. This comprehensive work is divided into six sections asfollows: Sample preparation and identification – discussingplant selection and collection, followed by extraction and samplepreparation methodologies. Extraction and sample preparation methodologies Instrumentation for chemical analysis - severalinstrumentations for chemical plant analysis are presented with anemphasis on hyphenated techniques, e.g. the coupling between HPLCand mass spectroscometry, and HPLC with NMR. Strategies for selective classes of compounds –coverage of the most interesting classes of compounds such aspolysaccharides, saponins, cardiotonic glycosides, alkaloids,terpenoids, lipids, volatile compounds and polyphenols (flavonoids, xanthones, coumarins, naphthoquinones, anthraquinones,proanthocyanidins, etc.). Biological Analysis - includes phenotyping, DNA barcodingtechniques, transcriptome analysis , microarray, metabolomics andproteomics. Drugs from Plants – covers the screening of plantextracts and strategies for the quick discovery of novelbioactive natural products. Safety assessment of herbal drugs ishighly dependent on outstanding chromatographic and spectroscopicmethods which are also featured here. This Handbook introduces to scientists involved in plant studiesthe current knowledge of methodologies in various fields ofchemically- and biochemically-related topics in plantresearch. The content from this Handbook will publish online within theEncyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry via Wiley Online Library: ahref="" Benefit from the introductory offer, valid until 30 November2014! Introductory price: £425.00 / $695.00 /€550.00 List price thereafter: £495.00 / $795.00 / €640.00

Microwaves in Nanoparticle Synthesis

Fundamentals and Applications


Author: Satoshi Horikoshi,Nick Serpone

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527648143

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 352

View: 3687

For the first time, this comprehensive handbook presents the emerging field of microwave technology for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Divided into three parts--fundamentals, methods, and applications--it covers topics including microwave theory, scale-up, microwave plasma synthesis, characterization, and more. This offers both an important volume for academic researchers, and a resource for those in industry exploring the applications of nanoparticles in semiconductors, electronics, catalysis, sensors, and more.

Alternative Solvents for Green Chemistry


Author: Francesca M. Kerton

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 085404163X

Category: Science

Page: 226

View: 1198

Conventional solvents can be hazardous in terms of toxicity, flammability and waste generation. Consequently, alternative solvents now form a substantial part of green chemistry. This book covers the latest developments in this growing field as well as some key areas that have been overlooked in previous literature.

Comprehensive medicinal chemistry II

editors-in-chief, John B. Taylor, David J. Triggle


Author: David J. Triggle,John B. Taylor

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780080445137

Category: Computers

Page: N.A

View: 5750