Analyzing Linguistic Data

A Practical Introduction to Statistics using R

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Author: R. H. Baayen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139470736

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: N.A

View: 3289

Statistical analysis is a useful skill for linguists and psycholinguists, allowing them to understand the quantitative structure of their data. This textbook provides a straightforward introduction to the statistical analysis of language. Designed for linguists with a non-mathematical background, it clearly introduces the basic principles and methods of statistical analysis, using 'R', the leading computational statistics programme. The reader is guided step-by-step through a range of real data sets, allowing them to analyse acoustic data, construct grammatical trees for a variety of languages, quantify register variation in corpus linguistics, and measure experimental data using state-of-the-art models. The visualization of data plays a key role, both in the initial stages of data exploration and later on when the reader is encouraged to criticize various models. Containing over 40 exercises with model answers, this book will be welcomed by all linguists wishing to learn more about working with and presenting quantitative data.

Statistics for Linguistics with R

A Practical Introduction

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Author: Stefan Th. Gries

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110307472

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 372

View: 3155

This book is the revised and extended second edition of Statistics for Linguistics with R. The volume is an introduction to statistics for linguists using the open source software R. It is aimed at students and instructors/professors with little or no statistical background and is written in a non-technical and reader-friendly/accessible style. It first introduces in detail the overall logic underlying quantitative studies: exploration, hypothesis formulation and operationalization, and the notion and meaning of significance tests. It then introduces some basics of the software R relevant to statistical data analysis. A chapter on descriptive statistics explains how summary statistics for frequencies, averages, and correlations are generated with R and how they are graphically represented best. A chapter on analytical statistics explains how statistical tests are performed in R on the basis of many different linguistic case studies: For nearly every single example, it is explained what the structure of the test looks like, how hypotheses are formulated, explored, and tested for statistical significance, how the results are graphically represented, and how one would summarize them in a paper/article. A chapter on selected multifactorial methods introduces how more complex research designs can be studied: methods for the study of multifactorial frequency data, correlations, tests for means, and binary response data are discussed and exemplified step-by-step. Also, the exploratory approach of hierarchical cluster analysis is illustrated in detail. The book comes with many exercises, boxes with short think breaks and warnings, recommendations for further study, and answer keys as well as a statistics for linguists newsgroup on the companion website. Just like the first edition, it is aimed at students, faculty, and researchers with little or no statistical background in statistics or the open source programming language R. It avoids mathematical jargon and discusses the logic and structure of quantitative studies and introduces descriptive statistics as well as a range of monofactorial statistical tests for frequencies, distributions, means, dispersions, and correlations. The comprehensive revision includes new small sections on programming topics that facilitate statistical analysis, the addition of a variety of statistical functions readers can apply to their own data, a revision of overview sections on statistical tests and regression modeling, a complete rewrite of the chapter on multifactorial approaches, which now contains sections on linear regression, binary and ordinal logistic regression, multinomial and Poisson regression, and repeated-measures ANOVA, and a new visual tool to identify the right statistical test for a given problem and data set. The amount of code available from the companion website has doubled in size, providing much supplementary material on statistical tests and advanced plotting.

Quantitative Methods In Linguistics

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Author: Keith Johnson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444360434

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 296

View: 8443

Quantitative Methods in Linguistics offers a practical introduction to statistics and quantitative analysis with data sets drawn from the field and coverage of phonetics, psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, historical linguistics, and syntax, as well as probability distribution and quantitative methods. Provides balanced treatment of the practical aspects of handling quantitative linguistic data Includes sample datasets contributed by researchers working in a variety of sub-disciplines of linguistics Uses R, the statistical software package most commonly used by linguists, to discover patterns in quantitative data and to test linguistic hypotheses Includes student-friendly end-of-chapter assignments and is accompanied by online resources at available in the 'Downloads' section, below

Quantitative Corpus Linguistics with R

A Practical Introduction

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Author: Stefan Th. Gries

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135895597

Category: Education

Page: 248

View: 1532

The first textbook of its kind, Quantitative Corpus Linguistics with R demonstrates how to use the open source programming language R for corpus linguistic analyses. Computational and corpus linguists doing corpus work will find that R provides an enormous range of functions that currently require several programs to achieve – searching and processing corpora, arranging and outputting the results of corpus searches, statistical evaluation, and graphing.

How to do Linguistics with R

Data exploration and statistical analysis

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Author: Natalia Levshina

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company

ISBN: 9027268452

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 443

View: 5998

This book provides a linguist with a statistical toolkit for exploration and analysis of linguistic data. It employs R, a free software environment for statistical computing, which is increasingly popular among linguists. How to do Linguistics with R: Data exploration and statistical analysis is unique in its scope, as it covers a wide range of classical and cutting-edge statistical methods, including different flavours of regression analysis and ANOVA, random forests and conditional inference trees, as well as specific linguistic approaches, among which are Behavioural Profiles, Vector Space Models and various measures of association between words and constructions. The statistical topics are presented comprehensively, but without too much technical detail, and illustrated with linguistic case studies that answer non-trivial research questions. The book also demonstrates how to visualize linguistic data with the help of attractive informative graphs, including the popular ggplot2 system and Google visualization tools. This book has a companion website: http://doi.org/10.1075/z.195.website

Statistics for Corpus Linguistics

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Author: Michael P. Oakes

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780748608171

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 287

View: 2527

Statistical techniques and corpus applications - whether oriented towards linguistics or language engineering - often go hand in glove, as Oakes demonstrates in this introduction to the subject which is designed for the use of non-mathematicians.

Experimental Research Methods in Sociolinguistics

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Author: Katie Drager

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 147425179X

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 216

View: 6259

An accessible, user-friendly guide to the variety of different experimental methods used in sociolinguistics, Experimental Research Methods in Sociolinguistics walks students through the "how-to†? of experimental methods used to investigate variation in both speech production and perception. Focusing squarely on practice and application, it takes the reader from defining a research question, to choosing an appropriate framework, to completing a research project. Featuring a companion website with information on experiment-friendly software, sample experiments and suggestions for work to undertake, the book also covers: -Ethical concerns -How to measure production and perception -How to construct and use corpora

Statistics for Linguists

A Step-by-Step Guide for Novices

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Author: David Eddington

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 1443887765

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 190

View: 5183

Linguists with no background in statistics will find this book to be an accessible introduction to statistics. Concepts are explained in non-technical terms, and mathematical formulas are kept to a minimum. The book incorporates SPSS, which is a statistics package that incorporates a point and click interface rather than complex line-commands. Step-by-step instructions are provided for some of the most widely used statistics in linguistics. At the same time, the concepts behind each procedure are also explained. Traditional analyses such as ANOVA and t-tests are included in the book, but linguistic data is often not amenable to such analyses. For this reason, non-parametric and mixed-effects procedures are also introduced.

Why Language Matters for Theory of Mind

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Author: Janet Wilde Astington,Jodie A. Baird

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195347846

Category: Psychology

Page: 368

View: 9743

"Theory of mind" is the phrase researchers use to refer to children's understanding of people as mental beings, who have beliefs, desires, emotions, and intentions, and whose actions and interactions can be interpreted and explained by taking account of these mental states. The gradual development of children's theory of mind, particularly during the early years, is by now well described in the research literature. What is lacking, however, is a decisive explanation of how children acquire this understanding. Recent research has shown strong relations between children's linguistic abilities and their theory of mind. Yet exactly what role these abilities play is controversial and uncertain. The purpose of this book is to provide a forum for the leading scholars in the field to explore thoroughly the role of language in the development of the theory of mind. This volume will appeal to students and researchers in developmental and cognitive psychology.

Quantitative Research in Linguistics

An Introduction

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Author: Sebastian M. Rasinger

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1472566963

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 304

View: 7834

Presents a comprehensive introduction to analysing quantitative linguistic data. Starting with an definition of quantitative data, and how it differs from qualitative data, Seb Rasinger examines what the student linguist is trying to find out through analysing data, and how quantitative techniques can help arrive at meaningful and accurate conclusions. This expanded, 2nd edition now also includes a discussion of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and MANOVA, and provides a brief introduction to statistical meta-analysis. A companion website allows readers to download crib sheets and Excel templates for the main statistical tools. The book introduces: -using statistics -variables -reliability of data -describing data -analysing data -testing hypotheses -dealing with problematic data. Each chapter includes graphs and figures explaining theory through worked examples, chapter summaries, and exercises to aid student understanding. An appendix containing a summary of statistical formulae, excel commands and statistical tables is included and is an invaluable resource. Presenting a down-to-earth and readable introduction to quantitative research, this book is a useful how-to guide for students encountering quantitative data for the first time, or for postgraduates embarking on linguistic research projects.

Word Frequency Distributions

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Author: R. Harald Baayen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402009273

Category: Computers

Page: 335

View: 9596

This book is a comprehensive introduction to the statistical analysis of word frequency distributions, intended for computational linguists, corpus linguists, psycholinguists, and researchers in the field of quantitative stylistics. Word frequency distributions are characterized by very large numbers of rare words. This property leads to strange phenomena such as mean frequencies that systematically change as the number of observations is increased, relative frequencies that even in large samples are not fully reliable estimators of population probabilities, and model parameters that vary with text or corpus size. Special statistical techniques for the analysis of distributions with large numbers of rare events can be found in various technical journals. The aim of this book is to make these techniques more accessible for non-specialists, both theoretically, by means of a careful introduction to the underlying probabilistic and statistical concepts, and practically, by providing a program library implementing the main models for word frequency distributions.

The R Book

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Author: Michael J. Crawley

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118448960

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1080

View: 6958

Hugely successful and popular text presenting an extensive and comprehensive guide for all R users The R language is recognized as one of the most powerful and flexible statistical software packages, enabling users to apply many statistical techniques that would be impossible without such software to help implement such large data sets. R has become an essential tool for understanding and carrying out research. This edition: Features full colour text and extensive graphics throughout. Introduces a clear structure with numbered section headings to help readers locate information more efficiently. Looks at the evolution of R over the past five years. Features a new chapter on Bayesian Analysis and Meta-Analysis. Presents a fully revised and updated bibliography and reference section. Is supported by an accompanying website allowing examples from the text to be run by the user. Praise for the first edition: ‘…if you are an R user or wannabe R user, this text is the one that should be on your shelf. The breadth of topics covered is unsurpassed when it comes to texts on data analysis in R.’ (The American Statistician, August 2008) ‘The High-level software language of R is setting standards in quantitative analysis. And now anybody can get to grips with it thanks to The R Book…’ (Professional Pensions, July 2007)

Text Analysis with R for Students of Literature

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Author: Matthew Jockers

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319031643

Category: Computers

Page: 194

View: 3211

Text Analysis with R for Students of Literature is written with students and scholars of literature in mind but will be applicable to other humanists and social scientists wishing to extend their methodological tool kit to include quantitative and computational approaches to the study of text. Computation provides access to information in text that we simply cannot gather using traditional qualitative methods of close reading and human synthesis. Text Analysis with R for Students of Literature provides a practical introduction to computational text analysis using the open source programming language R. R is extremely popular throughout the sciences and because of its accessibility, R is now used increasingly in other research areas. Readers begin working with text right away and each chapter works through a new technique or process such that readers gain a broad exposure to core R procedures and a basic understanding of the possibilities of computational text analysis at both the micro and macro scale. Each chapter builds on the previous as readers move from small scale “microanalysis” of single texts to large scale “macroanalysis” of text corpora, and each chapter concludes with a set of practice exercises that reinforce and expand upon the chapter lessons. The book’s focus is on making the technical palatable and making the technical useful and immediately gratifying.

Pragmatic Development in First Language Acquisition

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Author: Danielle Matthews

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company

ISBN: 9027270449

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 394

View: 8867

Pragmatic development is increasingly seen as the foundation stone of language acquisition more generally. From very early on, children demonstrate a strong desire to understand and be understood that motivates the acquisition of lexicon and grammar and enables ever more effective communication. In the 35 years since the first edited volume on the topic, a flourishing literature has reported on the broad set of skills that can be called pragmatic. This volume aims to bring that literature together in a digestible format. It provides a series of succinct review chapters on 19 key topics ranging from preverbal skills right up to irony and argumentative discourse. Each chapter equips the reader with an overview of current theories, key empirical findings and questions for new research. This valuable resource will be of interest to scholars of psychology, linguistics, speech therapy, and cognitive science.

Text Data Management and Analysis

A Practical Introduction to Information Retrieval and Text Mining

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Author: ChengXiang Zhai,Sean Massung

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool

ISBN: 1970001178

Category: Computers

Page: 530

View: 8759

Recent years have seen a dramatic growth of natural language text data, including web pages, news articles, scientific literature, emails, enterprise documents, and social media such as blog articles, forum posts, product reviews, and tweets. This has led to an increasing demand for powerful software tools to help people analyze and manage vast amounts of text data effectively and efficiently. Unlike data generated by a computer system or sensors, text data are usually generated directly by humans, and are accompanied by semantically rich content. As such, text data are especially valuable for discovering knowledge about human opinions and preferences, in addition to many other kinds of knowledge that we encode in text. In contrast to structured data, which conform to well-defined schemas (thus are relatively easy for computers to handle), text has less explicit structure, requiring computer processing toward understanding of the content encoded in text. The current technology of natural language processing has not yet reached a point to enable a computer to precisely understand natural language text, but a wide range of statistical and heuristic approaches to analysis and management of text data have been developed over the past few decades. They are usually very robust and can be applied to analyze and manage text data in any natural language, and about any topic. This book provides a systematic introduction to all these approaches, with an emphasis on covering the most useful knowledge and skills required to build a variety of practically useful text information systems. The focus is on text mining applications that can help users analyze patterns in text data to extract and reveal useful knowledge. Information retrieval systems, including search engines and recommender systems, are also covered as supporting technology for text mining applications. The book covers the major concepts, techniques, and ideas in text data mining and information retrieval from a practical viewpoint, and includes many hands-on exercises designed with a companion software toolkit (i.e., MeTA) to help readers learn how to apply techniques of text mining and information retrieval to real-world text data and how to experiment with and improve some of the algorithms for interesting application tasks. The book can be used as a textbook for a computer science undergraduate course or a reference book for practitioners working on relevant problems in analyzing and managing text data.

Cross-Linguistic Variation and Efficiency

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Author: John A. Hawkins

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199664994

Category: Computers

Page: 271

View: 6552

This book argues that major patterns of variation across languages are structured by general principles of efficiency in language use and communication, an approach that has far-reaching theoretical consequences for issues such as ease of processing, language universals, complexity, and competing and cooperating principles.

Statistics Explained

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Author: Perry R. Hinton

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317753925

Category: Psychology

Page: 358

View: 9306

Statistics Explained is an accessible introduction to statistical concepts and ideas. It makes few assumptions about the reader’s statistical knowledge, carefully explaining each step of the analysis and the logic behind it. The book: provides a clear explanation of statistical analysis and the key statistical tests employed in analysing research data gives accessible explanations of how and why statistical tests are used includes a wide range of practical, easy-to-understand worked examples. Building on the international success of earlier editions, this fully updated revision includes developments in statistical analysis, with new sections explaining concepts such as bootstrapping and structural equation modelling. A new chapter - ‘Samples and Statistical Inference’ - explains how data can be analysed in detail to examine its suitability for certain statistical tests. The friendly and straightforward style of the text makes it accessible to all those new to statistics, as well as more experienced students requiring a concise guide. It is suitable for students and new researchers in disciplines including Psychology, Education, Sociology, Sports Science, Nursing, Communication, and Media and Business Studies. Presented in full colour and with an updated, reader-friendly layout, this new edition also comes with a companion website featuring supplementary resources for students. Unobtrusive cross-referencing makes it the ideal companion to Perry R. Hinton’s SPSS Explained, also published by Routledge. Perry R. Hinton has many years of experience in teaching statistics to students from a wide range of disciplines and his understanding of the problems students face forms the basis of this book.

Phonetic Analysis of Speech Corpora

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Author: Jonathan Harrington

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1405141697

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 403

View: 4106

An accessible introduction to the phonetic analysis of speech corpora, this workbook-style text provides an extensive set of exercises to help readers develop the necessary skills to design and carry out experiments in speech research. Offers the first step-by-step treatment of advanced techniques in experimental phonetics using speech corpora and downloadable software, including the R programming language Introduces methods of analyzing phonetically-labelled speech corpora, with the goal of testing hypotheses that often arise in experimental phonetics and laboratory phonology Incorporates an extensive set of exercises and answers to reinforce the techniques introduced Accessibly written with easy-to-follow computer commands and spectrograms of speech Companion website at www.wiley.com/go/harrington, which includes illustrations, video tutorials, appendices, and downloadable speech corpora for testing purposes. Discusses techniques in digital speech processing and in structuring and querying annotations from speech corpora Includes substantial coverage of analysis, including measuring gestural synchronization using EMA, the acoustics of vowels, consonant overlap using EPG, spectral analysis of fricatives and obstruents, and the probabilistic classification of acoustic speech data