Analyzing Animal Societies

Quantitative Methods for Vertebrate Social Analysis

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Author: Hal Whitehead

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226895246

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 9982

Animals lead rich social lives. They care for one another, compete for resources, and mate. Within a society, social relationships may be simple or complex and usually vary considerably, both between different groups of individuals and over time. These social systems are fundamental to biological organization, and animal societies are central to studies of behavioral and evolutionary biology. But how do we study animal societies? How do we take observations of animals fighting, grooming, or forming groups and produce a realistic description or model of their societies? Analyzing AnimalSocieties presents a conceptual framework for analyzing social behavior and demonstrates how to put this framework into practice by collecting suitable data on the interactions and associations of individuals so that relationships can be described, and, from these, models can be derived. In addition to presenting the tools, Hal Whitehead illustrates their applicability using a wide range of real data on a variety of animal species—from bats and chimps to dolphins and birds. The techniques that Whitehead describes will be profitably adopted by scientists working with primates, cetaceans, birds, and ungulates, but the tools can be used to study societies of invertebrates, amphibians, and even humans. Analyzing AnimalSocieties will become a standard reference for those studying vertebrate social behavior and will give to these studies the kind of quality standard already in use in other areas of the life sciences.

Marine Mammal Ecology and Conservation

A Handbook of Techniques

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Author: Ian L. Boyd,W. Don Bowen,Sara J. Iverson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191550795

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 1019

Marine mammals command a high level of public attention, reflected in specific legislation for their protection and management in many countries. They also present particular challenges to ecologists and conservation biologists. They are mostly difficult to observe, they occupy an environment that is vast in its three dimensional extent, there are often perceived conflicts between marine mammals and people, and furthermore several species are now close to extinction. Marine mammals have some intriguing features in their biology - the ability to dive to crushing depths, to perform breath-hold dives that defy our current understanding of mammalian physiology, and many have an ability to hunt down prey using sophisticated sonar that we are only just beginning to understand. Many species also have complex social structures. We still have much to learn about these extraordinary animals so a comprehensive and authoritative overview of current methodology is now timely. The intention of this book is both to summarize the state-of-the-art and to encourage innovation and further progress in this research field.

Social Interaction in Animals: Linking Experimental Approach and Social Network Analysis

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Author: Cédric Sueur,Frédéric Mery

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 2889451224

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 470

Understanding the link between individual behaviour and population organization and functioning has long been central to ecology and evolutionary biology. Behaviour is a response to intrinsic and extrinsic factors including individual state, ecological factors or social interactions. Within a group, each individual can be seen as part of a network of social interactions varying in strength, type and dynamic. The structure of this network can deeply impact the ecology and evolution of individuals, populations and species. Within a group social interactions can take many forms and may significantly affect an individual’s fitness. These interactions may result in complex systems at the group-level, such as in the case of collective decisions (to migrate, to build nest or to forage). Among them, social transmission of information has been studied mostly in vertebrates: fish, birds and mammals including humans. In insects, social learning has been unambiguously demonstrated in social Hymenoptera but this probably reflects limited research effort and recent evidence show that even non-eusocial insects such as Drosophila, cockroaches and crickets can copy the behaviour of others. Compared to individual learning, which requires a trial and error period every generation, social learning can potentially result in the stable transmission of behaviours across generations, leading to cultural traditions in some species. The study of the processes which may facilitate or prevent this transmission and the analyses of the relationship between social network structure and efficiency of social transmission became these recent years an emerging and promising field of research. The goal of this research topic is to present the genetic and socio-environmental factors affecting social interaction and information or pathogen transmission with the integration of experimental approaches, social network analyses and modelling. Importantly, we aim to understand whether a relationship between social network structures and dynamics can reflect the efficiency of social transmission, i.e. can we use social network analysis to predict the social transmission of information or of pathogen, collective decision-making and ultimately the evolutionary trajectory of a group?

Exploring Animal Social Networks

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Author: Darren P. Croft,Richard James,Jens Krause

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691127522

Category: Nature

Page: 192

View: 1809

Social network analysis is used widely in the social sciences to study interactions among people, groups, and organizations, yet until now there has been no book that shows behavioral biologists how to apply it to their work on animal populations. Exploring Animal Social Networks provides a practical guide for researchers, undergraduates, and graduate students in ecology, evolutionary biology, animal behavior, and zoology. Existing methods for studying animal social structure focus either on one animal and its interactions or on the average properties of a whole population. This book enables researchers to probe animal social structure at all levels, from the individual to the population. No prior knowledge of network theory is assumed. The authors give a step-by-step introduction to the different procedures and offer ideas for designing studies, collecting data, and interpreting results. They examine some of today's most sophisticated statistical tools for social network analysis and show how they can be used to study social interactions in animals, including cetaceans, ungulates, primates, insects, and fish. Drawing from an array of techniques, the authors explore how network structures influence individual behavior and how this in turn influences, and is influenced by, behavior at the population level. Throughout, the authors use two software packages--UCINET and NETDRAW--to illustrate how these powerful analytical tools can be applied to different animal social organizations.

Studying Captive Animals

A Workbook of Methods in Behaviour, Welfare and Ecology

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Author: Paul A. Rees

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118629361

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 3904

Studying Captive Animals outlines the methods that may be used to study the behaviour, welfare and ecology of animals living under the control of humans, including companion animals, feral populations, and those living on farms and in zoos. This book is a step-by-step guide to the whole process of conducting a scientific study: from designing the original project, formulating testable hypotheses, and collecting and analysing the data, to drawing conclusions from the work and writing it up as a scientific report or paper. It also illustrates how to write a formal research proposal - a crucial and often difficult element of the student project - and how to deal with the ethical review process. Sample data collection sheets are provided and the analysis and presentation of data are worked through in diagrammatic form. In addition, exercises are included that enable the reader to practice analysing different types of data and advice is provided on the selection of appropriate statistical tests. The text describes the different types of student projects that may be undertaken in the field, and explains where secondary data may be found for zoos. This is an insightful resource, particularly for those studying and working with zoo and farm animals. It is essential reading for students studying zoo biology and animal management; it is also suitable for students on courses in animal behaviour, animal welfare, zoology, biology, psychology, animal science, animal production, animal ecology, conservation biology, and veterinary science. This book is primarily intended for undergraduates but will also be of value to postgraduate students who have not previously engaged in field studies. Professionals working in institutions that are members of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums, the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria and other regional and national zoo organisations will benefit from access to this practical guide.

Mammalia

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Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Mammals

Page: N.A

View: 6417

Proceedings

Biological sciences

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Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Biology

Page: N.A

View: 5469

Técnicas de estudos aplicadas aos mamíferos silvestres brasileiros

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Author: NELIO ROBERTO DOS REIS,ADRIANO LUCIO PERACCHI,MAIRA NUNES FREGONEZI,BRUNA KARLA ROSSANEIS

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 275

View: 6928

Neste livro, são propostos modelos de diferentes métodos de trabalho, no estudo da mastoeocologia - Técnicas de filmagem em vídeo e análise de imagens, mais especificamente, ligadas ao comportamento predatório e locomotor dos mamíferos; Metodologias usadas para se colher dados de mamíferos de médio e grande porte e a necessidade da associação delas para que, na amostragem de dados, haja o menor erro possível; Preparos para a realização de estudos genéticos em campo, desde a captura, a identificação e o manuseio dos espécimes, assim como a retirada e o armazenamento de tecidos; Técnicas de amostragem e observação de marsupiais neotropicais para estudos ecológicos, incluindo tipos, disposição de armadilhas e maneiras de marcação; Metodologia de coleta para o estudo de morcegos urbanos, assim como para os silvestres sem causar danos às comunidades de quirópteros e ao ecossistema; Ênfase nos métodos de estudo, diretos ou indiretos, no conhecimento da dieta, uso de abrigos, marcação territorial e distribuição espacial da Lontra longicaudalis; Métodos básicos de estudo para mamíferos carnívoros, onde são apresentadas as técnicas de observações diretas, como utilização de armadilhas fotográficas, análise da dieta, rastros, carcaças, fezes e outros vestígios, abrangendo também, formas de captura, tipos de marcação e procedimentos de monitoramento; Marcação de pinípedes, mostrando vantagens e desvantagens dos métodos aplicados a este grupo; Radiotelemetria aplicada às pesquisas com morcegos, uma técnica vantajosa, porém pouco usada em pesquisas com animais brasileiros; Investigações e procedimentos em cetáceos mortos e caçados, assim como nos indivíduos em cativeiro, com posteriores estudos conduzidos em ambiente natural; Métodos para avaliar a dieta e locais ocupados por capivaras; O uso de varredura instantânea para determinar o nicho de Cebus nigritus; Metodologia do uso de modelagem espacial no estudo referente aos mamíferos; Maneiras de elaboração de etogramas e conhecer comportamentos; Técnicas de registro, captura e observação de esquilos neotropicais.

Die Information

Geschichte, Theorie, Flut

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Author: James Gleick

Publisher: Redline Wirtschaft

ISBN: 3864142245

Category: Science

Page: 500

View: 9198

Blut, Treibstoff, Lebensprinzip - in seinem furiosen Buch erzählt Bestsellerautor James Gleick, wie die Information zum Kernstück unserer heutigen Zivilisation wurde. Beginnend bei den Wörtern, den "sprechenden" Trommeln in Afrika, über das Morsealphabet und bis hin zur Internetrevolution beleuchtet er, wie die Übermittlung von Informationen die Gesellschaften prägten und veränderten. Gleick erläutert die Theorien, die sich mit dem Codieren und Decodieren, der Übermittlung von Inhalten und dem Verbreiten der Myriaden von Botschaften beschäftigen. Er stellt die bekannten und unbekannten Pioniere der Informationsgesellschaft vor: Claude Shannon, Norbert Wiener, Ada Byron, Alan Turing und andere. Er bietet dem Leser neue Einblicke in die Mechanismen des Informationsaustausches. So lernt dieser etwa die sich selbst replizierende Meme kennen, die "DNA" der Informationen. Sein Buch ermöglicht ein neues Verständnis von Musik, Quantenmechanik - und eine gänzlich neue Sicht auf die faszinierende Welt der Informationen.

Gentechnologie für Einsteiger

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Author: Terence A. Brown

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783827413024

Category:

Page: 409

View: 969

T. A. Browns "Gentechnologie fA1/4r Einsteiger" hat sich in mehreren Auflagen international als StandardeinfA1/4hrung in die Genklonierung und DNA-Analyse etabliert. Das Grundlagenlehrbuch setzt nur wenig Kenntnisse in Molekularbiologie und Genetik voraus und erlAutert in klarer Sprache sowohl die fundamentalen Prinzipien der wichtigsten gentechnologischen Methoden als auch die immer breiter werdende Palette ihrer Anwendungen. Die groAe Bedeutung der Gentechnologie fA1/4r die Grundlagenforschung und fA1/4r neue Entwicklungen in Biotechnologie und Medizin wird klar herausgearbeitet. Aoeber 250 zweifarbige Illustrationen erleichtern das VerstAndnis des Stoffes und machen die Konzepte und Arbeitstechniken der Gentechnologen anschaulich. Die neue Auflage ist vollstAndig A1/4berarbeitet und enthAlt zwei neue Kapitel. Eines prAsentiert die Methoden, mit denen man ganze Genome sequenziert, und beschreibt, was man aus den gewonnenen Sequenzinformationen ablesen kann. Das zweite widmet sich den Anwendungen der Gentechnologie in der Gerichtsmedizin - ein spannendes und aufschlussreiches Beispiel des Einsatzpotenzials der DNA-Analyse. Der groAen Bedeutung der Polymerasekettenreaktion (PCR) entsprechend wird diese Technik jetzt in einem frA1/4hen Abschnitt des Buches behandelt und durchgehend stArker berA1/4cksichtigt.

Situationsanalyse

Grounded Theory nach dem Postmodern Turn

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Author: Adele Clarke

Publisher: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften

ISBN: 9783531171845

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 3804

Die Situationsanalyse schließt an den Grounded Theory-Ansatz an, erweitert ihn und eröffnet neue Perspektiven für die qualitative Forschung in den Sozial- und Geisteswissenschaften, die Professionsforschung sowie verwandte Arbeitsfelder. Präzise Mapping-Methoden generieren differenzierte und komplexe empirische Studien. Verwendet werden Interviews, ethnographisches, historisches, visuelles und anderes diskursives Datenmaterial, einschließlich Multi-Site-Forschung. Die Situationsanalyse verknüpft Diskurs und Handeln, Handlung und Struktur, Bild, Schrift und die historische Dimension der Phänomene zu "dichten Analysen". Situations-Maps verdeutlichen wichtige menschliche, nichtmenschliche, diskursive und andere Elemente und erlauben so, die Beziehungen zwischen ihnen zu analysieren. Maps von Sozialen Welten oder Arenen veranschaulichen kollektive Akteure und die Arenen ihres Engagements und Diskurses. Positions-Maps zeigen auf, welche Schlüsselpositionen eingenommen und auch welche nicht eingenommen werden. Die Situation selbst wird zum analytischen Schwerpunkt.

Virtuous Persons, Vicious Deeds

An Introduction to Ethics

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Author: Alexander E. Hooke

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Humanities Social

ISBN: 9780767402903

Category: Philosophy

Page: 719

View: 4340

This anthology helps students view virtue ethics as a significant and philosophically interesting approach to “the good life.” With the inclusion of historical and contemporary readings, Virtuous People, Vicious Deeds captures the complex nature of a wide range of virtues and vices.